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A probation or parole revocation can severely impact your life and send you to jail or prison. If you face revocation, Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson can fight the allegations and/or assist you in getting an alternative to revocation. Attorney Charles Johnson is experienced with revocation proceedings. He will provide you with the information and legal representation you need to fight the revocation, get an Alternative to Revocation (ATR), or limit the jail or prison time.
The Charles Johnson Law Firm can expertly assist you with any of the following:
- Probation or Parole violations
- Extended supervision violations
- Probation or Parole revocation hearings
- Reconfinement hearings
- Negotiating with probation/extended supervision agent
Revocations are often based on new charges but sometimes just on mere allegations. It is important to contact the experienced Houston Probation Attorney at the Charles Johnson Law Firm early on in your case so we can work to negotiate an alternative to revocation or seek lower re-confinement recommendations.
The use of probation and parole is governed in part by competing philosophies, classicalism and positivism. In short, classicalists believe that offenders choose their actions and, therefore, in order to prevent (or deter) future criminal acts, such individuals should be punished. Conversely, positivists believe that individuals are forced into the choice of committing crime through no fault of their own and, therefore, the conditions and/or behaviors that caused the action should be remedied, ultimately resulting in rehabilitation of the offender.
Legislative acts and public sentiment further dictate the application of probation and parole. Therefore, universal and consistent definitions and applications of probation and parole are not available as the methods of punishment and governing philosophies have evolved and moved toward the twenty-first century.
While these factors contribute to a lack of consistency when dealing with probation and parole, the primary obstacle to detailing specific state protocols is that the practice of granting probation and/or parole at the state level is dependent on the discretionary powers of select individuals, such as the prosecutor, the judicial authority, and the parole board, to name just a few.
Probation is a court-imposed sanction that “releases a convicted offender into the community under a conditional suspended sentence.” This practice assumes that most offenders are not dangerous and will respond well to treatment. In fact, the average probationer is a first time and/or non-violent offender who, it is believed, will be best served by remaining in the community while serving out the sentence. Probation is a form of punishment issued by a criminal court in place of incarceration. The probationer is generally considered to be a non-violent offender who has been convicted of a crime but is not considered a danger and is believed to be better served by being placed on probation instead of in a jail cell. Probationers are typically convicted of misdemeanor offenses, have already served partial jail time for the offenses or are first time offenders or minors. Probationers are often forced to modify their lifestyle by reporting to a probation officer, living in certain locations, abiding by a set curfew and avoiding association with known criminal offenders.
Historically, probation does not involve incarceration, making it a front-end solution to address the overcrowding problem in U. S. prisons and jails. While the immediate goal of any probation program is rehabilitation, in reality it is more a necessity than an instrument. As a result, other programs have been developed under the umbrella of community corrections that utilize elements of conditional release resulting in the expansion of probation-type programs.
Probation developed as a result of the efforts of philanthropist, John Augustus, to rehabilitate convicted offenders, although references to similar practices exist as early as 437-422 BC. It was favored because it allowed judicial authorities a great deal of discretion when imposing sentences, thereby providing the opportunity to tailor sentences to a particular offender, in theory allowing for the greatest possibility of rehabilitation. While sentences of probation vary widely across and within jurisdictions, the maximum length of time that one can be under supervision is 5 years (60 months).
The functions of probation are difficult to state definitively. It is known that at its inception, John Augustus’ goal was behavioral reform. This reflects the sentencing goal of rehabilitation. Fundamentally, it is believed that by allowing the offender to remain in the community, the system is providing a second chance. Further, support and guidance from probation officers may achieve the aim of guiding the offender towards a law-abiding existence.
Given that probation is no longer limited to first-time, non-violent offenders who pose minimal risk to the community, the reality is significantly different. Coupled with low confidence in the effectiveness of rehabilitative success and a burgeoning offender population, actual practices tend to be dictated by conflicting goals on both an individual and administrative level. In an aggressive bid to prevent jail or prison overcrowding, several alternatives to incarceration have developed. Some such programs enable offenders traditionally incarcerated to be released into the community, thereby forcing a shift in focus from rehabilitation to control and supervision.
Intensive Supervised Probation (ISP)
ISP is a form of release into the community that emphasizes close monitoring of convicted offenders and imposes rigorous conditions on that release, such as the following:
- Multiple weekly contacts w/officer
- Random and unannounced drug testing
- Stringent enforcement of conditions, i.e.,: maintaining employment
- Required participation in treatment, education programs, etc.
Individuals on ISP are those who most likely should not be in the community. The restrictions placed on them are often excessive and the level of direct, face-to-face contact required is believed to significantly deter, or at least interfere, with any ongoing criminal activity.
Shock Probation and Split Sentencing
Shock probation/split sentencing is a sentence for a term of years, but after 30, 60, or 90 days, the offender is removed from jail or prison.
While these terms are used interchangeably, they are actually two different activities. In shock probation, the offender is originally sentenced to jail, then brought before the judge after 30, 60, or 90 days and re-sentenced to probation. In split sentencing, probation is part of the original sentence requiring no additional appearance before the judge.
Probation revocation occurs when an offender who has been sentenced to serve his punishment in the form of probation rather than incarceration violates the terms of his probation and is imprisoned. Probation can be revoked for a variety of reasons and may have varying consequences for the individual who has had his probation revoked, depending location and the regulations of the law enforcement agency involved.
Probation revocation means that the offenders probation officer has decided that the offender is not complying with the terms that were set for his probation and should be imprisoned for the remaining length of his sentence. Probation officers have to meet with a judge during a hearing and present evidence that the probationer is not fulfilling the terms of the probation before the probation will be revoked. Individuals are notified when their probation is revoked. If they do not turn themselves in to the court or police, a warrant will be issued for their arrest.
Reasons for Probation Revocation
Probation revocation occurs when an probationer violates the terms of her unique probation sentence. This could mean going outside a specified area such as a state or county, not being home prior to a specified time, failing to pay fines, check in with a probation officer or complete community service. Probation may also be revoked if the probationer commits or is accused of committing another crime during the time of their probation.
Consequences of Probation Revocation
When probation is revoked, the offender is sent to jail to serve out the remainder of his sentence. This means that the offender is completely incarcerated for an amount of time that will be decided by the judge during a probation revocation hearing where the probation officer reports why he believes the offender’s probation should be revoked. In some instances, depending on the crime and the severity of the issue that caused probation to be revoked, an offender’s time on probation will be taken into consideration. She may receive a jail sentence that is shorter than her original sentence, since the time spent on probation can be considered to have been part of the time served for the crime.
Since probation is a conditional release, it can be revoked, or taken away, if the conditions governing release are not met (technical violation) or if a new crime is committed during the probationary period (new offense).
Probation revocation is initiated by the probation officer’s belief that a violation warranting revocation has occurred. As a result of the 1973 case Gagnon v. Scarpelli (411 U.S. 778), the Supreme Court decided that where “liberty interests” are involved, probationers are entitled to retain certain due process rights. Such rights include: (1) written notification of the alleged violations; (2) preliminary (or probable cause) hearing at which a judicial authority will determine whether sufficient probable cause exists to pursue the case; and (3) if warranted, a revocation hearing.
If a revocation hearing is scheduled, probationers have the right to testify in their own behalf, may present witnesses, and may have an attorney present. While the Gagnon court was vague regarding the right to court appointed counsel at a revocation hearing, most jurisdictions do provide the right to appointed counsel.
The standard of proof required at a revocation hearing is a “preponderance of the evidence”, lower than that required at a criminal trial. Possible outcomes include return to supervision, reprimand with restoration to supervision, or revocation with imprisonment.
If you were placed on deferred adjudication probation, a probation revocation could result in a conviction on your criminal record or possibly a jail or prison sentence. Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson provides aggressive and thorough representation for clients facing a revocation of probation. His primary goal when representing a client in a probation revocation proceeding is to explore all defenses and possible alternatives that could avoid revocation of your probation.
Early Intervention in Houston Probation Violations
If a motion to revoke probation has been filed against you or if you are potentially facing the possibility of probation revocation, the time to act is now! Early intervention in a probation violation matter can often make the difference between facing a probation revocation hearing, or indeed whether or not a motion to revoke probation is filed at all. Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson has the experience necessary to make the court, probation officer, and the District Attorney’s Office aware of all circumstances regarding your case and to explore all defenses and possible alternatives to avoid revocation of your probation.
Parole is the “conditional early release from prison or jail, under supervision, after a portion of the sentence has been served.” This practice assumes that the offender successfully demonstrated conformity to the rules and regulations of the prison environment and shows an ability to conform to society’s norms and laws.
The word, parole, derives from the French “parol” meaning “word of honor” and references prisoners of war promising not to take up arms in current conflict if released. How that concept came to apply to the early release of convicted, often violent, offenders is less clear. The first documented official use of early release from prison in the United States is credited to Samuel G. Howe in Boston (1847), but prior to that, other programs using pardons achieved basically the same outcome. In fact, as late as 1938, parole was simply a conditional pardon in many states.
Alexander Maconochie (England) ran the Norfolk Island prison. During his tenure, he instituted a system whereby inmates would be punished for the past and trained for the future. He believed that inmates could be rehabilitated so he implemented an open-ended sentencing structure where inmates had to “earn” their release by passing through three stages, each stage increased their liberty and responsibilities. Inmates had an open time frame in which to earn the next level. Compliance advanced them; infractions resulted in a return to the previous stage, thereby lengthening the sentence. The open-ended sentences (today known as indeterminate sentencing) allowed the administration to ensure that when finally released, an offender’s behavior had been successfully reformed. Eventually, Maconochie was removed from his position under criticism that his program “coddled” criminals.
At about the same time, Sir Walter Crofton was developing a similar program in Ireland using “tickets of leave”. The “Irish System” as it came to be known, employed a similar practice of allowing inmates to earn credits towards early release. However, once the “ticket of leave” was achieved, release from custody was conditional. The releasees were supervised in the community by either law enforcement or civilian personnel who were required to secure employment and to conduct home visits. These “supervisors” represented the forerunner to today’s parole officer.
In the United States, Zebulon Brockaway (Superintendent) employed elements from both the Irish and Great Britain models in managing the Elmira Reformatory during the 1870s. Brockaway is credited with the passage of the first indeterminate sentencing law in the United States as well as introducing the first good time system to reduce inmates’ sentences. However, releasing the offenders was only part of the problem and initially, the greatest challenge was providing adequate supervision once release had been granted.
By 1913, it was clear some independent body was required to supervise inmates in the community and by 1930, Congress formally established a United States Board of Parole. It appeared, at least for awhile, that initiatives and programs were developing that could make parole a viable and useful tool of the criminal justice system. But unfortunate timing contributed ultimately to its downfall.
In 1929, the Great Depression hit the United States. An immediate result was a sharp increase in prison populations. However, the high cost of maintaining prisons as well as a lack of available personnel to staff them made new construction prohibitive and contributed to the popularity of parole. While alleviation of the overcrowding problem is often cited as a secondary (or latent) goal, the reality is that as a back-end solution, parole is vital to the maintenance of the correctional system.
With the onset of the twentieth century, philosophers began to examine the social and psychological aspects of criminal behavior. This heralded a shift from classicalist thinking towards positivism. Under positivism, actions are believed to be caused by forces beyond one’s control (such forces could be psychological, biological, or sociological in origin). Therefore, parolees were now viewed as “sick” and the parole department was charged with the responsibility of “fixing” them.
Positivism is consistent with a less punitive approach to sentencing and generally involves an indeterminate sentencing structure allowing for the possibility of early release if the offender demonstrates that they have been successfully rehabilitated. As such, it fit well with the Elmira system and the timing afforded officials the opportunity to use parole as a means to relieve the overcrowded conditions that had developed during the depression.
The fact that parole involves some incarceration suggests that the average parolee has committed a more serious crime than the average probationer and, hence, poses a greater risk to the community. Therefore, primary goals of parole must include crime deterrence and offender control. And given that most offenders will eventually return to the community, a rival goal is reintegration, or the facilitation of an offender’s transition from incarceration to freedom.
Unfortunately, it appeared during the 1980s that parole was failing. Street crime rates during this period skyrocketed and in many cases, the crimes were perpetrated by individuals who were released into the community prior to the official expiration of their sentence. This reality led to the development of penal philosophies espousing “tough on crime” approaches and demanding “truth in sentencing”. Such philosophies warned criminals, “do the crime, do the time” and resulted in radical changes to sentencing practices across the country that indicated a return to a more punitive sentencing structure.
Since parole is a conditional release, it can be revoked or taken away, if the conditions governing release are not met (technical violation) or if a new crime is committed during the probationary period (new offense). In this manner, it is similar to probation; however, it differs in that probation is governed by judicial decisions whereas parole is governed by administrative procedures. As a result of the administrative nature of parole, the revocation process is so varied among the jurisdictions.
In large part, however, most minor infractions are dealt with by the parole officer and may not necessitate involvement of the parole board. Some jurisdictions empower the parole officer to immediately take a parolee into custody for 24 (New York) to 48 hours (Pennsylvania) for purposes of obtaining an arrest warrant. This practice is typically employed when the offender represents an immediate threat to public safety.
With respect to the legal protections afforded to parolees, the first case to explore this issue was Morrissey v. Brewer (1972). The Morrissey case explored the extension of due process rights of (1) written notice to parolee prior to general revocation proceeding; (2) identification of the violations being presented and any evidence being used to prove that the violation took place; (3) the right of the parolee to confront and cross-examine accusers (subject to exceptions) and (4) a written explanation for the decisions regarding the revocation of the parole and what evidence was employed in making that decision. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Morrissey case was the creation of a two-stage process wherein first, probable cause that violations had occurred had to exist in order to go to the second stage, which was the actual revocation hearing.
Interestingly, the Supreme Court did not choose to create a bright line rule for the right to court-appointed counsel at a revocation hearing. For the most part, however, most jurisdictions have followed the decision in Mempa v. Rhay (1967). While this case specifically dealt with the rights of probationers, it has been applied recently to parolees as well. Basically, the Supreme Court wrote that “any indigent is entitled at every stage of a criminal proceeding to be represented by court-appointed counsel, where substantial rights of a criminal accused may be affected.” In sum, the Supreme Court considered the liberty interests of the probationers and decided that a probation revocation hearing constituted a “critical stage” which dictated adherence to due process protections. This rationale has consistently been extended to include parole revocation hearings as well.
As of 2001, 15 states (Arizona, California, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, Ohio, Oregon, New Mexico, North Carolina, Virginia and Washington) and the Federal government have eliminated parole programs in lieu of a determinate model of sentencing reflective of a more retributive approach to punishment. (New York Gov. George Pataki proposed making New York the sixteenth state)
Such an action may seem warranted given the apparent inability of the system to guarantee the protection of the citizens and the end result is predictable. Overcrowding still represents the greatest challenge to the correctional industry. In fact, three states (Connecticut, Colorado, and Florida) reinstituted the parole boards after eliminating them due to the unforeseen overcrowding problems. The reality is that removal of parole ultimately leads simply to a shift in power from parole boards to prosecutors, in that the option most often exercised in states without parole, is probation.
Contact Houston Probation Lawyer Charles Johnson if You are Not Ready to Give Up – Jail is not the Only Option
Once we have dissected your probation revocation complaint, we will mount an aggressive defense, knocking out many of the counts against you. In the end, if you do have some counts that are proven to the court, we can often have probation reinstated, provided you accomplish some heroic steps at our direction prior to the revocation hearing. We will consult with you and our team of treatment experts to build a track record of success prior to your probation revocation hearing. These efforts will show the District Attorney and the judge that you are worthy of another chance at probation, and that you are not a danger to the community. With a well thought out and implemented plan, you have more options than jail or prison if the judge revokes your probation.
If you are accused of violating the terms of your parole or probation or have questions regarding a potential probation offense, please call at anytime for a free initial consultation.
Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Call us at 713-222-7577 or toll free at 877-308-0100.
Major Credit Cards Accepted.
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No one truly intends to commit intoxication manslaughter. They do not wake up and say “I’m going to get drunk tonight and drive and see who gets in my way.”
Accidents do happen and tragically, someone can die. Mitigating factors are thoroughly checked out such as whether the person broke any traffic laws, was driving with a suspended license, or if the person was negligent in some way. These are usually tried as misdemeanors. However, if a person is found to be intoxicated or under the influence of something, it is treated in Texas as a second degree felony and the prosecution goes after the person diligently. In intoxication manslaughter cases, the prosecution only has to prove that the driver was indeed, intoxicated. The term of incarceration could be anything from two years to twenty years.
If you have been charged with DWI after being in an accident that involved a death, you may be facing very serious charges of intoxication manslaughter. It is imperative that you speak with Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson as soon as possible after you have been charged, or think you may be charged. Attorney Johnson has the experience you can rely on for aggressive and effective defense strategies against the charges. The skilled attorneys at the Charles Johnson Law Firm do not believe there is any such thing as being slam-dunk guilty. No matter what the circumstances of the accident are, your personal story is behind the charges and will make a difference in the outcome of your case. We will make sure that the judge and jury know that this isn’t just about an intoxication manslaughter case. It is about you and your family.
Intoxication manslaughter is a Second Degree felony which holds people liable for any death which occurs because of criminal negligence, or a violation of traffic safety laws. A common use of the vehicular manslaughter laws involves prosecution for a death caused by driving under the influence (determined by excessive blood alcohol content levels set by individual U.S. states), although an independent infraction (such as driving with a suspended driver’s license), or negligence, is usually also required.
Intoxication manslaughter, vehicular manslaughter and other similar offences require a lesser mens rea (Latin for “guilty mind”. In criminal law, it is viewed as one of the necessary elements of a crime) than other manslaughter offenses. Furthermore, the fact that the defendant is entitled to use the alcohol, controlled substance, drug, dangerous drug, or other substance, is no defense. For example, in Texas, to prove intoxication manslaughter, it is not necessary to prove the person was negligent in causing the death of another, nor that they unlawfully used the substance that intoxicated them, but only that they were intoxicated, and operated a motor vehicle, and someone died as a result.
Types of Intoxication Manslaughter
In Texas, intoxication manslaughter does not only apply to automobile drivers. Individuals may be charged with this crime under any of the following circumstances:
If they are operating a car, truck, motorcycle, or any other type of motorized vehicle in a public place
If they are operating a boat, airplane, or amusement park ride
If they assemble an amusement park ride
If the alleged offender has done any of these things while intoxicated, and someone was killed by the vehicle they were operating or had assembled, they can be convicted of intoxication manslaughter. There is no requirement that the prosecutor prove negligence, that their intoxication was the direct cause of the crash, or that they were behaving unlawfully by using the substance that caused their intoxication.
Defenses For Intoxication Manslaughter
Intoxication manslaughter cases should be attacked on two fronts if the case is going to trial. Notwithstanding whether a person is or is not intoxicated, a good lawyer would examine the Texas Peace Officer collision report which was completed as part of the investigation. Just because a driver may be intoxicated does not mean that he should be held criminally liable for the death of another.
There have been cases where the deceased driver was as much at fault if not more at fault than the accused. Examples could include the deceased having run a red light, the deceased having operated his motor vehicle at night without lights, the deceased also being intoxicated, the deceased merging improperly into traffic, and the list goes on. A lawyer familiar with crash reconstruction and who has worked with reconstruction experts should be able to present this defense if it is available. The issue is one of causation and is set forth in Tex. Penal Code Section 6.04. In a nutshell, what 6.04 states is that if an accused’s conduct is insufficient in itself to cause the result, and the conduct of another contributed to the result and the contributing cause was sufficient to cause the result, the accused cannot be held liable.
A good accident reconstruction expert’s report may convince a prosecutor to agree to probation if causation is questionable. That in itself may be worth the investment in hiring both a reconstruction expert and a lawyer who knows how to present such findings.
The second line of defense is whether a person is intoxicated. Scientific evidence can be compelling for a jury. However, the State is allowed to rely upon opinion evidence based upon observations such as lack of coordination, blood shot eyes, smell of intoxicants on breath, slurred speech etc. Some of these symptom could be explained by lack of sleep, allergies, injury, but not all.
Most police departments have on board video cameras and video may very well have been used in this case. Video can be a two-edge sword. Many a video has convinced a defendant to make the best deal possible, while other videos have convinced an accused to take it to trial
In blood draws/test results, there are several considerations. A blood sample can be lost, yet there can be a medical record from a laboratory stating what the test result is. In fact, most hospitals don’t retain the blood samples, but for a very short period. If the blood draw was for medical treatment, sometimes there is a chain of custody problem that makes admission of the medical records unreliable. Most courts, when dealing with a chain of custody issue on medical records as the result of medical treatment rule that any problems goes to the weight of the evidence, not the admissibility, that is, the records gets admitted but the defense lawyer gets to argue that it is not reliable because of the poor chain of custody.
Mandatory blood draws can be attacked, however, you should hire a lawyer familiar with the statutory and administrative requirements for blood draws.
Houston Intoxication Manslaughter Defense Lawyer: The Charles Johnson Law Firm
When you are charged with intoxication manslaughter or intoxication assault, you have more than just the prosecutor against you. You have the victim’s family and the public screaming for your head. You don’t have to go through this alone. The Charles Johnson Law Firm will fight aggressively to protect your rights and your future.
After a car accident in which there has been a fatality, it is an extremely upsetting situation for everyone involved. Law enforcement will collect evidence at the scene and this evidence is an important part of the documentation of the case. It is crucial that if you have been charged with intoxication manslaughter that you contact The Charles Johnson Law Firm quickly. The evidence in the case can be reviewed and an attorney can advise you what can be done in your case. Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson can offer a free evaluation of your case, and it is advised that you take advantage of this so it can be determined what can be done and what options may be possible in your case.
Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Call us at 713-222-7577 or toll free at 877-308-0100.
Major Credit Cards Accepted
News Stories Related to Intoxication Manslaughter Arrest in Houston:
Download “Arrested for Intoxication Manslaughter? Avoid Conviction by Hiring the Best Houston Intoxication Manslaughter Attorney” in PDF format
Illegal Immigrant Arrested in Death of Texas Police Officer
A motorist accused of killing a Houston police officer while driving ... striking and killing Officer Kevin Will with the Houston Police Department. Rodriguez has since been charged with intoxication manslaughter of a peace officer, felony evading, and ...
FOX News - May 29 2011
Woman accused of killing retired HPD officer arrested again
The driver, Patrick O’Brian Hubert, 25, was arrested on two felony warrants. Inman is currently out on bond for intoxication manslaughter and intoxication assault. She was involved in a fatal accident that took the life of a retired Houston police ...
Click2Houston - Apr 21 2014
Man Charged With Intoxication Manslaughter
The victim, Cynthia Partida ... facing intoxication manslaughter charges. Authorities said the 23-year-old was driving drunk around 2:30a.m. Thursday when he hit and killed Partida, as she tried to go through the intersection of Ben Wilson and Houston ...
Crossroads Today - Feb 26 2014
Driver charged with intoxication manslaughter
A Houston man is in jail on charges of intoxication manslaughter and failure to stop and render aid after a crash Friday evening killed another man on the North Freeway. Michael Anthony Flores, 37, was arrested shortly after the accident about 8:30 ...
Chron - Oct 15 2011
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When the police suspect an individual has been driving under the influence, they will ask him/her to perform a series of standard tests, also named field sobriety tests. Field sobriety tests help law enforcement determine a driver’s level of intoxication by challenging his or her physical and mental coordination and capacity to follow instructions. They are also used to establish a probable cause for arrest.
If you are pulled over for suspected DWI, be polite to the officer. On the other hand , do not respond to any questions about what you have had to drink or when.
Politely refuse to undergo field sobriety testing, as this is not mandatory and you cannot be penalized for a refusal of this kind.
The three standardized field sobriety tests used by Houston police officers are:
The Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN): HGN refers to the involuntary jerking of the eyeball. When an individual is intoxicated, it is believed that his/her eyes are more likely to twitch. Through the HGN test, the police officer will hold an object in front of the driver and ask him/her to follow the object with his or her eyes. If the driver cannot follow the object, or if his/her eyes start twitching, then it is taken as a sign of intoxication. (Even so, it is very important to note that Nystagmus is medical and physiological condition that’s common in a large amount of individuals, even though they are sober)
The One-Leg Test: the driver stands on one foot and raises the other leg six inches off the ground when counting out loud. The driver is expected to stand on one foot without raising his/her arms, losing balance, wobbling, hopping around, or putting the lifted leg down.
The Walk and Turn Test: the driver takes nine steps in a straight line touching heel to toe, stops, and then repeats the action in the other direction
In addition to these DWI tests, law enforcement officers may possibly require drivers to perform additional tests, including:
- Finger to nose test
- Reciting the alphabet
- Counting backwards
- Balancing tests
If you did perform a field sobriety test and were arrested, it is important to get in touch with the Most Effective Houston Lawyer as soon as possible. Most law enforcement officers have already decided to arrest you at this point, and are at this point simply looking for more evidence to use against you in court. Many attorneys believe field sobriety tests are inaccurate, subjective, and designed for failure. There are many factors that can cause folks to appear intoxicated, most notably nervousness, age, lack of natural coordination, lack of proper instruction, weather, fatigue, illness, physical problems, disabilities, injuries, car headlights, weight, footwear, intimidation, and traffic distractions.
Other important advice:
After your criminal arrest, you have the right to remain silent. You do not need to answer questions or submit to formal questioning about the case. Although you should cooperate and be polite, you do not need to respond to questions about how much you have had to drink and when. Exercise this right, and you will have a much better potential for avoiding a conviction.
You also have the right to legal counsel. This is a constitutional right that should be observed in order to provide defendants in criminal cases the opportunity to establish their innocence. By consulting a Houston DWI criminal defense lawyer as soon as possible subsequent to a DWI arrest, you will provide him or her a better chance of making a positive impact on your case.
If you are arrested, be sure that you speak to the Texas DPS as soon as possible. You have only Fifteen calendar days to schedule an ALR (Administrative License Revocation) hearing regarding your license suspension. Failing to schedule this hearing will lead to the automatic suspension of your license.
Most importantly, contact the Recommended Houston Criminal Defense Lawyer as soon as you can. Having a competent lawyer at your side as early in the process as possible will mean that your rights will probably be safeguarded and you will have the very best opportunity of avoiding license suspension and a conviction.
Houston DWI Defense: The Most Dedicated Houston DWI Attorney
If you have been arrested and charged for DWI, and you performed one or more field sobriety test, it is vital to hire an expert Houston DWI lawyer to investigate your case and represent you in the courtroom. The Top Houston DWI Attorney will use their expertise to fight the charges brought against their clients and protect their rights. They will question the arresting officer’s ability to properly conduct a field sobriety test, and make sure the police officer did not violate their clients’ rights in the course of the arrest. Furthermore, they will be dedicated to providing each client with personalized attention, viable alternatives, and aggressive DWI defense. They will not stop working until they acquire a favorable result, and see that justice has been served.
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Being charged with a crime in Houston is a extremely scary moment in your life. The federal government has the power to take away your liberty for the rest of your life. A quite complex process starts to operate the minute that you are arrested by the police. It truly is frightening and bewildering.
In this article we will give you a good idea of the criminal process and what you might expect should you are ever charged with a crime. Nevertheless, these are generalities only. The real answer is determined by the form of criminal offense you were charged with, the circumstances surrounding it, the county you are in, etc. Only those who understand the criminal law process, and realize how to make it work, will be able to genuinely tell you what to anticipate in your particular case. This is certainly an area of the law you do not ever want to handle all by yourself.
Experienced Houston Lawyer: The Charles Johnson Law Firm
The Charles Johnson Law Firm will always provide a free of charge consultation to anyone charged with a criminal offense. You should take advantage of that free consultation asap. Having a criminal defense attorney is extremely important to successfully getting through the criminal process. Receive a complimentary initial consultation by calling Houston Criminal Defense Lawyer Charles Johnson now, 24 / 7, 365 days a year.
The following are the steps you might expect to happen, and what each step in the process means to you:
Stop and Arrest
The whole process starts with a stop or a charge by the authorities. A stop isn’t as formal as an arrest. A police officer will stop you to make inquiries. They cannot stop you unless they have a reasonable belief that you violated what the law states. What is a valid “reasonable suspicion”? There are a million court cases answering that question and Houston Criminal Defense Attorney Charles Johnson will be capable of giving you many examples during your no charge consultation.
Nevertheless, understand that you always have the right to remain silent, even if you are merely stopped and questioned. You do not have to answer questions from law enforcement at any time. The truth is, everyone ought to know their constitutional rights relating to criminal law.
If you are in a vehicle, the law enforcement officer may very well ask to search it. The authorities cannot search your automobile unless they have “probable cause”, or you consent. Some might seek your consent mainly because they do not quite have “probable cause.” You do not have to provide your consent to a search of your automobile. Some may search your automobile later, nevertheless your attorney will be able to then challenge the probable cause law enforcement asserted as being a reason to search the automobile. Should you give your consent, the authorities do not need any other reason to search your vehicle, and your attorney will have considerably less to challenge in the courtroom.
“Probable cause” is more serious than “reasonable suspicion”, however there are a million court cases explaining it too and a Houston Lawyer will explain those during your consultation. You cannot challenge a law enforcement officer’s assertion of probable cause until later, in the courtroom. Once again, let your lawyer handle that question later.
Typically, a police officer is able to charge you should they have probable cause to believe you committed a crime, or if there is a warrant out for your arrest. If a stop and search lead to an arrest, you must in no way resist it. If it isn’t really valid, you may wish to do so, however you cannot legally challenge it until later. Resisting arrest is a crime itself. The optimal advice if you are arrested is to be calm, be silent, and demand a lawyer before they ask you any type of questions.
After being arrested, the police officer will “book” you. This is the process where they take your fingerprints, get your mug shot, do a background check, and ask you questions. Remember, you have the right to remain silent and the right to demand an attorney. You do not need to respond to questions. They aren’t going to let you out of jail even should you respond to all their questions. Just always be calm, always be silent, and let Attorney Johnson deal with things later. That’s the best you can do.
The charge originates from the prosecutor, not police officers. The victim does not get to charge you, and contrary to popular belief, they don’t get to drop the criminal charges either. The prosecutor will often take into account the wishes of the victim, nevertheless they do not have to. You are within the hands of the state subsequent to being arrested. They cannot hold you indefinitely, however. You must be arrested for a criminal offense within a certain limited amount of time or they have got to release you.
This is where the Judge or Magistrate will formally read your criminal charges and let you know your rights. You should have asserted your priviledge to an attorney before now. If not, do so now. If you are asked how to plea, and you do not have a Houston criminal defense lawyer, you must say “not guilty.”
The Magistrate will determine whether or not you ought to be released, and if so, how much your bail will be. Bail is the amount of cash you, or another person else, must post with the court so they can be sure you will reappear. In the event you do not, your bond is going to be forfeited, and the county retains it.
If bail is set, another person has to post it for you or hire a bail bondsman to do so. If you hire a bail bondsman, and you run off, the bondsman loses the bail money to the court. In the event that happens, they send another person after you – a bounty hunter. Furthermore, there will be a warrant out for your arrest. In some cases you might be released on your own “recognizance”, which just means there is absolutely no bail. Nevertheless you are now in the system and will have to appear for additional proceedings.
Discovery is a pre-trial process where the prosecutor needs to give certain information and facts to your criminal defense lawyer. Attorney Charles Johnson will be permitted to see all of the evidence against you before trial. There aren’t any secret, last minute witnesses permitted.
This is the top reason to remain silent, not give your consent to a search, and demand an attorney in the event you are arrested. Your lawyer might prepare any number of pre-trial motions. They frequently ask the Court to exclude certain evidence from trial if it was gained in an illegal or impermissible fashion. It is difficult to suppress evidence if you spoke voluntarily or gave consent to a search.
This is known as a fancy word for negotiations. If the two sides reach an agreement, you will usually be required to plead guilty to one or more of the charges to obtain the deal which has been reached. This involves going to court, answering several questions from the Judge, and indicating to the court on the record that you are guilty to the charge agreed upon by your criminal defense attorney and the prosecutor.
If the prosecutor and your lawyer are unable to reach an agreement on a plea bargain, you will normally go to trial. Trial is where the government needs to put on evidence that you committed a transgression, in most cases including producing witnesses live in court to testify. You do not have to testify. You do not need to put on any type of evidence whatsoever. The government has to demonstrate its case, and it needs to demonstrate it beyond a reasonable doubt.
If you are found guilty, or if you enter a plea of guilty based on a plea bargain, you will undoubtedly be sentenced by the Court. The Judge will make a decision on the suitable punishment. This might end up being anything from probation to active prison time. There are guidelines that apply and allow the Judge a general range of punishment choices.
Houston Criminal Defense Attorney Charles Johnson can do a lot for you personally at sentencing, including making sure that all the procedures are followed, arguing for lesser guidelines, and arguing circumstances which would allow the Judge to sentence you to lower than that called for in the guidelines. Also, Attorney Johnson will help you before sentencing by informing you what measures you might take to make the Judge more likely to be lenient on you. For instance, if you are charged with drunk driving, and take a class or go to rehab, the Judge may take that into consideration when sentencing you.
Aggressive Houston Attorney: The Charles Johnson Law Firm
I have tried to provide you with a good overview of the criminal process, with a few tips on how best to deal with important things at each stage. But I should repeat my first and most important advice here: call Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson whenever a criminal charge is made against you. It is no joke, and you could lose your protection under the law, your money, and your independence.
Remember, we offer a no cost consultation for any individual charged with a criminal offense. You should take advantage of that no charge time to better understand the exact nature of your situation, and what is likely to take place at trial or sentencing.
Charles Johnson |
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The illegal sale or use of prescription drugs can certainly result in severe criminal charges. If you have been arrested for a forged prescription or the unlawful possession of a prescription drug, you want a highly skilled criminal defense lawyer protecting your rights and fighting for you in court.
At the Houston Charles Johnson Law Firm, our trial attorney has many years of practical experience dealing with numerous drug crimes involving prescription drugs. Available at any hour, 7 days a week, we are ready to answer your questions and build your defense.
Anyone can certainly be hooked on prescription drugs. A number of our clients started out taking their drugs for medical reasons, but grew to be addicted. When their prescriptions ran out, they obtained the drugs by other means. Serving satisfied customers throughout Texas, our firm recognizes the penalties of a criminal conviction for average, everyday men and women. We can help you battle any sort of of the following charges:
- Prescription Forgery
- Sale of Prescription Drugs
- Prescription Fraud
- Illegal Possession of Prescription Drugs
The primary goal in each prescription drug case is to prevent a prison sentence. We shall help you discover alternative sentencing options, that include entering a drug treatment center. You will likely be in need of rehabilitation, certainly not a jail sentence. Looking forward, we are going to help you receive the assistance you might need.
Although the majority of prescription drug court cases involve painkillers, we handle criminal charges involving a wide range of drugs, for a wide range of clients, including minors. If your case involves any of the following prescription drugs or others, we can help:
Abuse and the unlawful sale of prescription drugs, significantly painkillers including Oxycodone and OxyContin, is a growing criminal charge being vigorously charged and prosecuted across the state of Texas. A popular and quite often easily accessible narcotic, prescription drug offenses carry with them the same kinds of severe penalties as various other illegal sale, trafficking, distribution and use offenses.
It is quite often students and under-30 men who are most commonly charged with abuse of prescription drugs. At the Charles Johnson Law Firm we have represented valued clientele in Houston and nearby communities for quite some time. Our lawyer offers personalized attention to each individual client to develop a powerful defense depending on the unique circumstances of your situation.
Act In your Defense
Prescription pain medication is popular. No doubt the majority of medicine cabinets across the Houston area have some kind of prescription drug unlocked and very easily accessible. But, even doing something as simple as offering a few Oxycodone, OxyContin, Valium or Xanax pills to some close friends at a social gathering could potentially result in a major criminal record and even prison time.
Our expert criminal defense lawyer provides the advantage of many years of working experience working exclusively in criminal defense. We have expertly handled a wide range of drug cases. Rely on us to battle your prescription drug criminal charges involving:
- Prescription fraud
- Doctor shopping
Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson has worked with folks from virtually all walks of life, including students, blue-collar workers and executives. Attorney Johnson has built his reputation on the foundation of his dedication to getting results and meeting the needs of our individuals.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that close to twenty percent of Americans have used prescription drugs for non-medical purposes at some point in their lives. But with the increased trafficking of prescription drugs online, the shocking increase in senior citizen trafficking of prescription drugs, and the high incidence of overdoses by users of illegally attained prescription drugs, prosecution is increasing and sentences are quite often just as harsh as those imposed for the distribution of illegal drugs. Trafficking statutes don’t discriminate: doctors and pharmacists are arrested for unlawful trafficking in prescription drugs, and so are the social-security-dependent elderly who trade painkillers for cash to pay for various other medications not supplied by Medicare or to pay the electric bill.
Houston Prescription Drug Possession/Sales Defense Attorney: The Charles Johnson Law Firm
Possession or distribution, prescription or "street" drugs, drug-related criminal charges are serious business. The potential for mandatory minimum prison sentences – sometimes ten years or more for fairly minor offenses – along with license suspensions, lengthy and restrictive terms of probation, mandatory drug treatment, hefty fines, taxes, forfeiture of property and assets, and limitations on future employment prospects, means that you ought to fully understand your liberties and options before you take any sort of action at all. The clock is ticking on the limitations period for filing certain defenses and requests for information.
Take charge of your case now. Talk to Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson now. A knowledgeable criminal defense lawyer will undoubtedly be able to explain exactly what sort of penalties you could very well be facing, and assess your case for potential defenses. Call right now for a no charge, no obligation consultation with an experienced criminal defense lawyer who will be able to guide you through this hard time.
Charles Johnson |
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Degrees of assault are defined according to state laws. Legal guidelines range by state, but generally, assault in the first degree is defined as when a person:
- With intent to cause significant bodily injury to another individual, s/he causes serious bodily injury to any person by means of a deadly weapon or perhaps a dangerous instrument; or
- With intent to disfigure another person very seriously and permanently, or to destroy, amputate or disable permanently a member or organ of their body, he or she causes this kind of an injury to any individual; or
- Under situations manifesting severe indifference to the value of human life, he or she recklessly engages in conduct that creates a grave possibility of death to another person, and thus brings about severe physical injuries to any person; or
- In the course of and in furtherance of the commission or attempted commission of arson in the first degree, burglary in the first or second degree, escape in the 1st degree, kidnapping in the first degree, rape in the 1st degree, robbery in any type of degree, sodomy in the 1st degree or some other felony plainly dangerous to human life, or of immediate flight therefrom, s/he causes a significant bodily injury to another individual; or
- While driving under the influence of alcohol or perhaps a controlled substance he or she causes significant bodily injury to the individual of another with a motor vehicle.
Second degree assault could perhaps involve intentional or reckless severe bodily damage to another person, or physical damage to any individual by means of a lethal weapon or perhaps a dangerous instrument. It could possibly involve interfering with a law enforcement officer, emergency responder, or teacher, while performing their responsibilities. If the injury sustained is a lot less significant, it might possibly be classified as assault of a lesser degree, that include "simple assault".
The following is an example of a state statute governing simple assault:
Simple Assault. A person is guilty of assault if he or she:
- Attempts to cause or purposely, knowingly or recklessly causes bodily injury to another; or
- Negligently causes bodily injuries to another with a lethal weapon; or
- Attempts by physical menace to put an additional in fear of imminent significant bodily injuries.
- Simple assault is known as a disorderly persons criminal offense unless committed in a fight or scuffle entered into by mutual consent, in which case it is a petty disorderly persons criminal offense."
Houston Assault & Battery Defense Attorney: The Charles Johnson Law Office
At the Charles Johnson Law Office, our criminal defense lawyer has been defending individuals against charges of criminal assault, domestic abuse, and restraining orders violations for more than a decade. In the event you have been accused of assault, get in touch with our firm to schedule a consultation with an experienced criminal defense attorney. Contact us at 713-222-7577 or toll free at 877-308-0100.
Charles Johnson |
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Are you facing charges of intent to distribute cocaine? Are you worried about your teenager who was caught using drugs at school? Have you been arrested for possession of marijuana?
We can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. For aggressive representation from an experienced drug charge defense lawyer, contact our Houston law office to schedule a free initial consultation. At the Charles Johnson Law Firm, you will find a drug crimes defense attorney who has over a decade of experience protecting the rights of people facing state or federal drug charges.
Aggressive Drug Charge Defense Representation
If you are under investigation or have already been arrested for a drug-related crime, criminal defense attorney Charles Johnson can help. Attorney Johnson is proficient at representation in pre-arrest negotiations, in plea bargain settlements, at trial and on appeal in state and federal drug crime cases.
We represent individuals facing state or federal drug crime charges involving the manufacture, distribution, sale, or possession of illegal drugs, controlled substances, chemicals used in the illicit production of controlled substances (running a meth lab), and drug paraphernalia. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana, methaqualone, morphine, phencyclidine (PCP), crack cocaine, methadone, methamphetamine, Anabolic steroids, codeine and/or hydrocodone with aspirin, Valium®, and Xanax® are examples of controlled substances the manufacture, distribution, or possession of which can result in serious state or federal drug crime charges. The Charles Johnson Law Firm strives to ensure that our clients’ rights are protected throughout the entire case.
Drug Possession Charges
At the Charles Johnson Law Firm, we are prepared to defend drug charges in court. Don’t let drug charges ruin your future.
When possible, we work to get drug arrests removed from our client’s criminal record through expunction. For high school students, whether charged as an adult or a juvenile, possession of even a very small amount of a drug such as marijuana can result in lost educational opportunities, including attendance at the student’s college of choice or the ability to go to college at all because of student loan ineligibility based on a drug crime conviction. A teenage drug conviction can also result in lost employment opportunities, including ineligibility for certain jobs or future career advancement. In Texas, possession of an illegal drug or a controlled substance can be a misdemeanor or a felony depending upon the type and amount of drugs involved. If a plea bargain is in our client’s best interests, we will work hard to get the best deal possible.
Motion to Revoke Probation (MTR)
If you are facing a probation revocation because of a probation violation, we can help. We understand that there are often psychological issues, such as bipolar disorder, underlying many drug problems, and we work on getting you the treatment you need and probation, reinstatement or termination instead of prison time.
Houston Drug Charges Defense: The Charles Johnson Law Firm
When you are facing an arrest and possible conviction for a drug crime, your future is on the line. To learn how we can help defend you against drug charges, contact our skilled Houston, Texas criminal defense lawyer today for a free initial consultation.
Charles Johnson |
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Texas has a reputation as being extremely hard on drug use and possession, and it is well earned. Minor marijuana possession is not decriminalized in Texas, as it is in several states, which means that even a miniscule amount can land you 6 months in jail.
Like many other states, Texas divies up punishments based on the weight of the drug possessed or sold. The possession of up to a pound of marijuana (this includes very minor amounts) will generally carry a sentence of 6 months to 2 years in a state jail and a $2,000 – $10,000 fine. However, if you have no prior felony convictions and are arrested with up to a pound, a Texas judge must impose a sentence of probation with drug treatment (for a duration at the judges discretion). The judge can also waive the fines, in this case.
That is where the leniency ends, however. For the possession of 1 – 5 lbs, there is no probation, and a minimum sentence of 6 months will be imposed. This will also be considered a “state jail felony,” (which is a Texan creation meant to help with prison over-crowding). This means it will count as a felony on your record, but you will be sentenced to a minimum security prison with non-violent offenders.
After the five pound limit, the court will assume you are a major trafficker, and the penalties increase rapidly (these felonies are not of the “state-jail” variety):
5 – 50 lbs: 2 – 10 years, $10,000 fine
50 lbs – 1 ton: 2 – 20 years, $10,000 fine
1 ton+ : 5 – 99 years, $50,000 fine
What About Giving a Baggie to a Friend?
Texas law does not recognize little gifts as being the same as possession (like most states do). Therefore a gift of even less than 1/4 of an ounce carries the same 6-month $2,000 fine as simple possession, but without the probation requirements (i.e. you will likely serve time). If it is a sale of that same amount, the penalty jumps to 1 year. This applies to even extremely small amoutns, even less than a single joint cigarette.
What About Other Sales?
Penalities for the sale or delivery of marijuana are also assigned by weight in Texas:
- 1/4 oz – 5 lbs: 6 months – 2 years, $10,000 fine
- 5 lbs – 50 lbs: 2 – 20 years, $10,000 fine
- 50 lbs – 1 ton: 5 – 99 years, $10,000 fine
- 1 ton or more: Mandatory minimum of 10 – 99 years, with a $100,000 fine
These are for either the sale OR delivery, meaning it is irrelevant whether or not you are actually paid or just just giving it to someone. On top of that, if the delivery or sale is to a minor (in ANY amount), that is punishable by an additional 2 – 20 years in prison. Also, sale within 1,000 feet of a school or within 300 feet of a youth center, public pool or video arcade increases the penalty classification to the next highest level (which in some cases is a difference of many years).
I am a Legal User of Medical Marijuana in my State. Can I Bring it into Texas?
Absolutely not. Texas does not recognize any form of medical marijuana, so all the same laws above apply to you, and if you are arrested while possessing marijuana, a medical card or doctor’s note will not be a valid defense. Federal law also does not recognize medical marijuana (even in your home state), so you should contact the Charles Johnson Law Firm before you ever try to carry medical marijuana over state borders.
Do I Need a Lawyer?
If you have been arrested in Texas for a marijuana crime, or have a legal prescription to marijuana and are thinking of going in state, it is very important to contact Houston Criminal Defense Attorney Charles Johnson immediately. The laws in this field are extremely harsh and frequently changing, so having up to date facts and advice can be the difference between a minor hassle and a prison sentence.
When it comes to cases involving drug possession, an experienced and effective criminal defense attorney can mean the difference between a prison sentence and reduced or dismissed charges. Houston Drug Crimes Lawyer Charles Johnson is dedicated to defending the rights of the accused and is committed to the presumption of innocence. Even in less serious cases, a good criminal defense attorney can make a serious impact on the outcome of the case by ensuring that the rights of the accused are protected throughout the legal process. For these and other reasons, it is vital that those accused of a crime select the most competent, experienced and effective attorney available.
If you have been accused of a crime, please contact us today for a free consultation with an aggressive and resourceful criminal defense attorney. We will work tirelessly to ensure the best possible outcome for your case. We are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to assist you with your criminal legal matter.
Charles Johnson |
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After being arrested, a person is “booked” by the police. Ordinarily, the police obtain identifying information from the suspect, such as his name, address, telephone number and driver’s license number. The person is checked for outstanding warrants for other offenses. Usually, the police take the suspect’s photograph and fingerprints. They make a record of this information, along with the nature of the crime charged, and usually an assessment of the suspect’s physical condition. If a person is under arrest at the time he is booked, he will ordinarily be thoroughly searched. If the arrest was legal, any evidence found in this search can be used as evidence in court.
If you or someone in your family has been arrested, you probably aren’t sure where to turn or what to do next. While the arrest itself is a daunting situation, you can do several things right away to gain information and control. A positive first step is to contact Houston Criminal Defense Lawyer Charles Johnson. Attorney Johnson will guide you through the complicated maze of the justice system. We can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Call us at 713-222-7577 or toll free at 877-308-0100.
Charles Johnson |
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