Houston Lawyer Blog
Archive for Sex Crimes
Unlike many other types of criminal defense cases, sexual assault defense cases require an extremely delicate touch. Sexual assault is a term which encompasses rape, attempted rape, sexual abuse and battery, molestation, and other crimes.
One of the most difficult aspects of sexual assault defense is the fact that there are rarely ever any witnesses to sexual assault crimes. In addition to the lack of witnesses, there is usually little evidence a rape, attempted rape, molestation, or other sex crime, ever occurred. Taking away evidence and witnesses, what we are left with is one word vs. another – the victim’s claim, and the suspect’s defense, both people’s lives often drastically affected by the severity of the event and the legal outcome.
It is the responsibility of your lawyer to thoroughly research all aspects of your case and assist you with whatever legal facilitation you need through this difficult time.
Don’t Make A Serious Mistake: Make The Right Choice For Your Sex Crimes Defense Attorney
If you or someone you care about is facing a charge of rape or sexual assault, you can’t afford to make a mistake with who you hire as your Houston Sex Crimes Defense Attorney. These types of criminal charges demand an attorney that has defended these types of cases successfully for many years. Our proven results are among the best in the legal profession in Texas. We know how to very aggressively and successfully defend Texas sex crime charges, and we know how to make sure you are legally protected to the maximum extent possible.
Make the wrong move – hire an attorney who only handles these cases “occasionally,” or hire an attorney based on the lowest fee you’re quoted – and you may find yourself in prison for something you may not be legally guilty of doing. If you are in this situation right now, you probably have a hundred questions to ask. Contact Houston Sexual Assault Lawyer Charles Johnson anytime night or day at (713) 222-7577 for your free consultation. Attorney Johnson will help you decide what, legally, you need to do.
What Is Sexual Assault?
“Sexual Assault” is any form of sexual contact or penetration that is committed against another person without his or her consent. Victims of sexual assault can be compelled to participate through physical force, fear, coercion, deception, or the use of intoxicants such as drugs or alcohol. Some types of sexual violence that doesn’t involve force or other forms of compulsion are still considered criminal.
Sexual Assault is broadly defined as the full range of forced sexual acts, including forced touching or kissing; verbally coerced intercourse; and vaginal, oral, and anal penetration. Researchers typically include in this category only acts of this nature that occur during adolescence or adulthood; in other words, childhood sexual abuse is defined separately. Both men and women can be sexually assaulted and can commit sexual assault. The vast majority of sexual assaults, however, involve male perpetrators and female victims.
Other examples of sexual assault include:
Date or acquaintance rape which involves non-consensual sexual intercourse committed by a date or someone known to the victim, such as an acquaintance, friend, co-worker, date, or spouse. This includes incidents where the victim is unable to provide consent (e.g. unconscious, asleep, or under the influence of a substance). Most rapes are acquaintance rapes.
Alcohol-involved rape: Rape in which the perpetrator, the victim, or both are under the influence of alcohol at the time of the incident.
Attempted rape: An act that fits the definition of rape, in terms of the strategies used, but does not result in penetration.
Childhood sexual abuse: Sexual abuse that occurs to a child (the term “child” is generally defined as age 13 or younger). Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc.) to a child with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography.
Date rape: Rape committed by someone that the victim is dating. Among college students, approximately one-half of all rapes are committed by a date.
Marital rape: Rape committed by the victim’s spouse. Marital rape often is committed in association with verbal and physical abuse.
Stranger rape: Rape committed by someone that the victim does not know. Less than 20 percent of rapes are committed by strangers, although most people believe that stranger rape is the prototypical rape.
“Flashing” or “Exhibitionism” involves the exposure of a person’s genitals to cause alarm or fear in another person or to provoke sexual interest in the viewer.
“Peeping” or “Voyeurism” is secretively observing someone, without the person’s permission, for the purpose of sexual gratification.
“Stalking” or “Cyber stalking” are forms of harassment generally comprised of repeated and persistent following, calling, writing, texting, etc. with no legitimate reason and with the intention of harming, or so as to arouse anxiety or fear of harm in the person being followed or contacted.
Anyone — men, women, and even children — can be sexually assaulted. Sexual assault is usually defined as sexual activity between two or more people in which one of the people is coerced or threatened with harm. The sexual activity may include fondling, sexual intercourse, oral sex, and/or anal sex. The sexual aggressor can be a family member, like a husband or father, or a friend, date, acquaintance, or stranger.
Sexual assault is a crime that has become an epidemic problem. Sexual assault can be an extremely stressful, terrifying event and can severely disrupt the victim’s lifestyle and coping patterns. During a sexual assault, the victim may have feelings of powerlessness and uncertainty about whether he or she will survive. Frequently the victim’s life is directly threatened and the victim may be physically injured in a variety of ways. At the same time, the victim must remain alert, trying to protect him or herself from even more harm. Children who may be present are often threatened, adding to the terror and causing the victim to feel responsible for protecting them.
Studies show that the impact of sexual assault varies from person to person. Victims may no longer feel safe, may lose self-esteem, feel powerless, and lose the ability to trust others or develop intimacy. The more terrifying the assault, and the more the person’s life is threatened, the more problems victims usually have afterwards. Having suffered previous traumatic events can also contribute to greater problems.
Sexual assault of adolescent and adult women has been called a silent epidemic, because it occurs at high rates yet is rarely reported to the authorities. Several reasons contribute to the underreporting of sexual assault cases. Many victims do not tell others about the assault, because they fear that they will not be believed or will be derogated, which, according to research findings, is a valid concern. Other victims may not realize that they have actually experienced legally defined rape or sexual assault, because the incident does not fit the prototypic scenario of “stranger rape.” For example, in a study by Abbey and colleagues, a woman wrote, “For years I believed it was my fault for being too drunk. I never called it ‘rape’ until much more recently, even though I repeatedly told him ‘no’.”
Defendants Charged With Sexual Assault
Unfortunately in many of these cases there is a tendency to favor the victim’s claim and assume that he or she is telling the truth, no matter the actual believability of the story. The courts are supposed to be fair and equal, but that is not always the case. This is why it is imperative that you find a lawyer that believes you, is on your side, and will be aggressive in making sure your story is heard while defending your rights and fighting for your freedom.
Whether there is evidence of a crime or not, an effective and experienced criminal defense lawyer should know how the legal system works and how to best defend your rights and your case. Sexual Assault defense requires many resources including precision, experience, knowledge, and dedication, all aspects that you will find when working with our lawyers. At the Charles Johnson Law Firm, we defend each of our clients with every available tactic, legal technique, investigative research, and more to secure their vindication and release. In short, we will do our best to win your case.
If you have been charged with, or are charging someone with sexual assault of any sort, please protect your rights and contact Houston Sexual Assault Lawyer Charles Johnson anytime night or day at (713) 222-7577 to discuss your case.
Victims of Sexual Assault in Society
Cultural and Religious Issues
Issues having the most profound impact on victims may, in part, be attributed to their cultural or religious backgrounds. For some victims, problems associated with poverty and discrimination, as well as inadequate access to quality health care, already have resulted in a high incidence of victimization. There may exist a general distrust of medical and law enforcement personnel who play vital roles in the aftermath of sexual assault, particularly if there has been a history of unpleasant or disappointing experiences with these professionals.
In some cultures, the loss of virginity is an issue of paramount importance which may render the victim unacceptable for an honorable marriage. In other cultures, the actual event of the assault may be a more signiﬁcant issue of concern for the family than is the victim’s loss of virginity.
Some religious doctrines prohibit a female from being disrobed in the presence of a male who is not her husband. A genital examination by a male physician also may be forbidden. These practices are often considered a further violation of the victim, the family or both.
The Elderly Victim
As with most other victims, elderly victims experience extreme humiliation, shock, disbelief and denial. However, full emotional impact of the assault may not be felt until the victim is alone, well after initial contact with physicians, police, legal and advocacy groups. During this time, elderly victims must deal with having been violated and possibly infected with sexually transmitted diseases. This is also when the elderly become more acutely aware of their physical vulnerability, reduced resilience and mortality. Fear, anger or depression can be especially severe in elderly victims who are isolated, have no conﬁdant or live on meager incomes. Fear of losing independence as a result of family members learning about the sexual assault can be a strong deterrent to reporting. Recognizing that the offender may be a family member, friend or caretaker is also important.
The Victim with Disabilities
Persons having mental or developmental disabilities may be confused or frightened, unsure of what occurred, or they may not even understand that they have been exploited and are victims of a crime. In sexual assault cases involving victims with mental or developmental disabilities, using anatomically detailed dolls has proven to be a successful means of communication. Only those speciﬁcally trained in their use should use anatomically detailed dolls. In some cases, offenders may be family members, caretakers or friends who inﬂict repeated abuse because their victims are not able to report the crimes against them.
The Male Victim
It is believed that the number of adult male victims of sexual assault who report the crime or seek medical care or counseling represents only a very small percentage of those actually victimized. Although many adult males do not seek medical care unless they also have been seriously injured, male child victims are now being seen at hospitals in increasing numbers. This increase, in large measure, is a direct result of public education and more stringent child abuse reporting laws throughout the nation.
The male victim may have serious concerns regarding his inability to prevent the assault. There also may be confusion about the nature of his role as victim/participant because of a possible involuntary physiological response to the assault, such as stimulation to ejaculation. Male victims need reassurance that they were the victims of a violent crime which was not their fault, and that other sexually assaulted males have survived to function normally in every way.
The Child and Adolescent Victim
Children are not small adults either physiologically or emotionally. Just as the physical examination protocol for children is different from the protocol for adults, the emotional needs of the child are also different. Children require the services of individuals speciﬁcally trained to provide the crisis intervention, medical examination and long-term treatment that will surely be needed as a result of acute sexual assault or chronic sexual abuse.
Adolescents are experiencing a transition from childhood to adulthood and show extremely variable reactions which may be a reflection of their individual developmental stage. There is no typical adolescent victim, and the approach to each is a challenge for even the most experienced practitioner. Acquaintance or “date rape” may be the most under-reported type of sexual assault. Clearly, access to long-term treatment by speciﬁcally trained individuals is essential for all child and adolescent victims.
The Domestic Violence Victim
Sexual assault by a spouse or other familial is a grave indicator of the danger a victim faces and must be taken seriously. Forced sex is a factor in determining the potential for lethality; a woman who is raped by her partner is more likely to die at his hands. Medical personnel must determine whether the victim is a domestic violence victim so proper services and referrals can be provided.
A victim who has been sexually assaulted by a partner has likely been suffering other forms of violence during the relationship. Many victims keep physical, emotional and sexual abuse hidden from friends and family members for numerous reasons: many religions and cultures prohibit divorce, the victim believes that the abuse is deserved or does not realize a crime has been committed, the victim has no support system, the victim is ﬁnancially dependent upon the abuser, or the victim fears the abuser will harm or take the children.
The Homosexual Victim
Homosexual male and lesbian victims are often reluctant to seek services for a number of reasons. There is concern of encountering barriers of prejudice or homophobia, as well as fears that the assault will not be taken seriously or even perceived as a crime. Many times the homosexual community in a given area is small; this results in limited access to qualiﬁed service providers, and the fear that the entire community will ﬁnd out about the attack. Another consideration is that the victim’s family, friends or co-workers may not be aware of the victim’s sexual orientation. Fears of ostracism by peers and family can be more traumatizing for the victim than the attack.
Bisexual and transgender victims are also at high risk for encountering prejudice and ridicule as a result of reporting sexual assault. Recognizing that sexual assault is always a crime and knowing appropriate referrals for victims who are not heterosexual is essential for all involved.
Victimization Involving Alcohol/ Drugs
Alcohol is the drug most frequently used to facilitate sexual assault. Victims often believe that because they voluntarily consumed alcohol, ecstasy or some other drug, they are to blame for the assault. It is important to understand that intoxication and the resulting diminished abilities are not causes of sexual assault; they are tools used to aid in commission of this crime.
Victims who have ingested a drug or combination of drugs may not be aware that they have been sexually assaulted. Victims may experience unexplainable soreness or injuries or a disheveled appearance. Events described as “dreamlike” or that cannot be remembered at all are strong indicators that toxicology screens are warranted and should be discussed.
Victim Reactions to Sexual Assault
After a sexual assault, victims can experience a range of responses. However, some patterns are especially common. Some victims report that they have repeated and frequent memories of the sexual assault that intrude on their thoughts and cannot be controlled; flashbacks, or a feeling as if they are reliving the sexual assault; nightmares; and difficulty sleeping. In addition, sexual assault victims may experience feelings of being “on edge,” having trouble concentrating, feeling the need to continually watch over their shoulder, or being easily startled (for example, jumping at the sound of someone’s voice from behind). Victims also report that they tend to avoid reminders of the sexual assault, including avoiding places that may resemble the place where they were assaulted; may feel less interested in things that they used to enjoy; and may feel emotionally numb. Victims may also withdraw from social interaction or settings. When these problems persist and disrupt daily life, mental health professionals call this group of symptoms posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
In addition to PTSD, sexual assault victims frequently find that they feel depressed and hopeless about the future, which can lead to thoughts about suicide. Many victims also report that they feel like the sexual assault was somehow “their fault,” resulting in feelings of self-blame and self-doubt. Frequently, sexual assault victims also say that they feel generally unsafe and often have difficulties with trust and intimacy. It is also common for sexual assault victims to have questions about their physical health and develop problems related to their sexual functioning. Lastly, sexual assault victims may resort to using drugs or alcohol to cope with their symptoms.
Women who become victims of sexual assault typically experience the victimization as a traumatic event. There are common reactions to this kind of trauma or shock; but at the same time, each woman responds in her own unique way.
- Fear responses: The most common victim reaction to sexual assault is fear. At the time of the assault, most victims have an overwhelming experience is fear — of being physically injured (beaten, cut, shot, etc.) or even of being killed. Fear responses associated with the assault (to certain sights, sounds, smells, thoughts, etc.) can persists for weeks, months, or even years. Victims who have been assaulted typically avoid anything which reminds them of the assault (places, situations, people, etc.). Some men and women become so fearful that they greatly restrict their activities, even to the point that they are unable to leave their homes or to be left alone.
- Losing control: After experiencing a sexual assault, many men and women fear that they are losing control over their lives. They have been forced to participate in an act that was against their wills. They lost control over their lives at the time of the assault, and this feeling of loss of control may continue after the assault.
- Flashbacks: Victims may re-experience the assault over and over again in their thoughts and/or in their dreams. When this happens, it is almost as though the assault is actually occurring again. This reexperience of the event is called a flashback.
- Trouble concentrating: Sexual assault victims may find that they have trouble concentrating on things. It is as though they cannot keep their minds on what they are doing. This is can be frustrating and add to the sense of loss of control.
- Guilty feelings: The most common source of guilty feelings are the result of self-blame. The victims tells him- or herself such things as, “I should not have been out that late,” or “I should have been dressed differently,” or “If I had been more careful about locking the door, this would not have happened.” Sexual assault victims may also feel guilty about what they had to in order to survive the assault, such as activities the victim felt he or she had to engage in in an effort to save him- or herself from serious physical harm or even death. In some instances, guilty feelings result from the fact that others may have been seriously harmed more than the victim herself. This is referred to as survivor’s guilt.
- Feeling “dirty”: Self-image frequently suffers as a result of the assault. Many victims report feeling “dirty” and may take frequent showers in an effort to feel clean.
- Depression: Another common reaction to sexual assault is a sense of sadness or depression. There may be feelings of hopelessness and despair, frequent crying spells, and sometimes even thoughts of suicide. A loss of interest in activities and things that previously were enjoyable often accompanies these feelings of sadness and despair. Nothing seems like it is fun anymore.
- Disrupted relationships: It is not unusual to see a disruption in relationships with others after a sexual assault. This is, in part, a result of the withdrawn behavior that frequently accompanies sadness and depression. The victim may also feel embarrassment and ashamed about what happened to them. However, the support of friends and family plays a vitally important role in the victim’s recovery from the trauma of sexual assault.
- Loss of interest in sex: After an assault it is not unusual for the victim to experience a significant loss of interest in sexual relations. It is understandable that sexual assault trauma would lead to an avoidance of sexual activity. There may be other factors involved, however. For instance, it is very common for people who are depressed to experience a decrease in libido or sexual drive.
Sexual Paraphilias (Sexual Deviations)
Definition: Receiving Sexual Arousal or Gratification in Response to Objects, Situations, and/or Non-Consenting Partners
Sexual paraphilias are commonly referred to as “sexual deviations”. There are four of these disorders, 1) sexual dysfunctions, 2) paraphilias, 3) gender identity disorders, and 4) sexual disorder not otherwise specified.
The essential feature of a paraphiliac disorder is reoccurring sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies generally involving: (1) Non-human objects, (2) the suffering or humiliation of oneselfor one’s partner (not merely simulated), or (3) children or other nonconsenting partners.
For some individuals with a paraphilia, the paraphiliac fantasies or stimuli may always benecessary for erotic arousal and are always included in the individual’s sexual activity (including criminal activity).
In others, it occurs only episodically, i.e. during periods of stress. At other times, the person canfunction sexually without the paraphiliac fantasy or stimuli. In some instances, the paraphiliacbehavior may become the major sexual activity in this person’s life.
It is commonly accepted that when an individual is identified as having one paraphilia, there areat least one or more additional paraphilias. These individuals rarely seek treatment on their own; usually they come to the attention of mental health professionals only when their behavior has brought them into conflict with sexual partners or society (i.e. they get arrested for criminal behavior).
Any or all of the paraphilias may be exhibited by an offender during a sexual assault of a victim (adult or child). The following is a comparison of the recognized sexual paraphilias to criminal conduct:
|False imprisonment, assault.
The exposure of one’s genitals to a stranger.
Disorderly (lewd) conduct.
Nonliving objects (fetishes). The individual frequently masturbates while holding, rubbing or smelling the object or asks his partner to wear the object.
|Burglary, theft, rape.
Touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting (or unknowing) partner.
|Assault, battery, sexual battery.
Producing sexual excitement by mechanical or chemical asphyxiation (hypoxia).
|Accidental death, involuntary manslaughter.
Cutting, alteration, branding, infusion of the genitals (one’s own or another’s)
|Assault with a deadly weapon, kidnapping, sexual battery, mayhem.
|Penetration by foreign object.
The person is aroused by being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer.
|Disorderly conduct; prostitution.
Sexual arousal with corpses.
|Burglary, unauthorized mutilation, theft.
Exclusive focus on part of a body (living).
|Sexual battery, assault, assault with a deadly weapon.
Sexual attraction to another who is legally a child (prepubescent child).
|Rape, lewd or lascivious acts with a child, oral copulation, penetration by foreign object, sodomy, annoying children, child pornography, kidnapping.
Piercing of the body.
|Assault with a deadly weapon, sexual battery, mayhem, tattooing.
Receiving sexual arousal or gratification inresponse to another’s suffering (physical orpsychological).
|Rape, oral copulation, sodomy, penetration by foreign object, assault with a deadly weapon, kidnapping, murder.
Talking lewdly, on the telephone, usually to strangers.
|Obscene phone calls.
Cross-dressing, wearing the clothing of the opposite sex.
|Disorderly conduct, prostitution, theft, burglary, robbery.
|Assault, false imprisonment.
Observing unsuspecting people who are naked or engaging in sexual activity.
|Disorderly conduct; “peeping” and prowling.
|Sexually assaulting an animal.
Texas law covers a long list of sex crimes, from rape and sexual assault to statutory rape and indecent exposure. They are all serious offenses, but among the most serious is involuntary deviate sexual intercourse. Similar to rape, it’s a crime centered around forcible sexual intercourse. Penalties can be severe, especially if a child is involved.
If you are facing involuntary deviate sexual intercourse charges in the Houston area, contact Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson, an experienced involuntary deviate sexual intercourse defense attorney in Texas. Call today. It is important to start working on your defense right away.
We Defend All Sex Crime Charges
Our sexual assault defense practice helps people charged with, but not limited to:
- Child molestation, possession of child pornography, sexual assault
- Statutory rape, sodomy, rape
- Deviant sexual assault, sexual misconduct, enticement of minors
A conviction can mean jail or prison time as well as thousands of dollars of fines. A conviction can also require lifetime registration as a sexual offender. These sex offender registrations are open to the public including family members and employers. Failure to register as a sex offender can result in new convictions and incarceration.
Through training and experience we have a unique view and ability to handle theses types of cases. These types of cases have unique and special rules that other types of cases do not. We have experience to deal with those issues such as:
- Special hearsay rules for child witnesses
- Dealing with forensic interviews by law enforcement or therapists.
- Interpreting clinical medical exams such as SAFE exams.
- Obtaining and using evidence of prior instances of abuse from state agencies.
- Dealing with the child witness on the witness stand.
No matter what type of sex crime you are charged with, we will respect your dignity and work to protect your reputation.
Hire the Best Sexual Assault Lawyer: Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson
Sexual Assault is a serious, life-changing event and allegation, which is why the courts take the claims so seriously. However, too frequently, there is a lack of evidence and witnesses that helps the criminal defense attorney working for the defendant to win the case. A defendant may sometimes avoid prosecution and punishment simply by just claiming a rape, molestation, attempted rape or other sexual assault act never happened.
Sometimes the prosecutor’s office is so inundated with cases that your personal case may not receive the attention it deserves. With extensive expertise in the area of sexual assault, good criminal defense lawyers are in a unique position to predict the probable legal maneuvers of the defendant’s lawyers and to address and challenge those maneuvers before they become an issue or a possible way for the defense lawyers to win their client’s case.
For this reason it is an extremely smart idea to hire the best criminal defense attorney to ensure your case is given the time and importance it should have. Contact Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson directly at (713) 222-7577 now to discuss your case. He is available around the clock to take your call.
Download “Charged with Sexual Assault? Protect Your Future With the Leading Houston Sex Crimes Lawyer” in PDF Format
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Charles Johnson |
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, types of criminal charges
Texas takes cases of sexual assault against a child very seriously. If the state can prove that an act involving a child was for the perpetrator’s sexual gratification, it is considered a sex crime. If there was physical contact involving sexual penetration or intrusion between the child and the accused, a sexual assault charge is likely.
Sexual allegations where children are involved are delicate and complicated cases to defend. This type of sexual accusation can be devastating in every aspect of your life. The presumption of innocence in our legal system may do little to protect those accused. Indecency with a child, like other sexual allegations, is one area where accused people often find they are put in a position where they have to prove their innocence. You cannot allow embarrassment to keep you from getting a skilled criminal defense attorney on your indecency case IMMEDIATELY. Every minute you wait, there is potentially more damage being done to your life and potentially more false evidence being collected to prosecute you. Early on in a sex related case investigation and legal protection is imperative. Charles Johnson, Houston Sex Crimes Lawyer, will handle your case with discretion and skill. He will fight to keep you out of jail, keep your reputation intact, and fight to keep your life from falling apart.
It is well established and understood by experts that many accusations of indecency with a child and sexual assault of a child are false. Many are grossly exaggerated. The reasons giving rise to false accusations of such conduct are varied. A child can imagine or dream such an incident. Perhaps the child was abused by another previously and misinterpreted and then exaggerated innocent incidental contact. Children have been known to fabricate such accusations because they were angry at the accused or were jealous, even for the most trivial reasons. Children can be led to make such claims by another angry or jealous adult, such as the accused’s spouse or lover. They are too young to comprehend how grave such a false accusation can be.
Under Texas law, a sexual encounter with a child or sexual contact with a child is either Indecency with a Child, Sexual Assault of a Child, or Aggravated Sexual Assault of a Child, depending on the nature of the incident or contact.
Indecency with a Child. Allegations of certain types of sexual contact with a child, exposure to a child or causing the exposure of a child, who is under the age of 17, can lead to charges of Indecency with a Child. Such an offense may be a second or third degree felony. A defense may exist where, in such an incident, no duress, force or threat was used and the accused was not more than three years older than the child at the time.
Sexual Assault of a Child. If more violative and egregious contact is alleged, the accused may be charged with Sexual Assault of a Child, also a second degree felony. Again, a defense may exist where, in such an incident, no duress, force or threat was used and the accused was not more than three years older than the child at the time.
Aggravated Sexual Assault of a Child. Sexual Assault of a Child becomes “aggravated” (first degree felony) when force or threat of force is used or when the child is younger than 14 years of age, regardless of consensual behavior. This latter is also commonly known as “statutory rape”. No child under the age of 14 can consent to such conduct. Mistaken understanding about the child’s age is no defense.
The consequences of a conviction in such matters are extreme. Even if prison time is avoided, an adult’s conviction results in the requirement to register as a sex offender for the rest of one’s life, and to have one’s photograph and address flashed on the computer screen of anyone in the world who decides to access the state’s sex offender registry site.
Indecency with a Child
The commonly phrased crime of child molestation is titled Indecency with a Child in Texas. There are two types of indecency: Indecency with a Child by Contact and Indecency with a Child by Exposure (similar to Indecent Exposure but a child is present). Both are serious felonies. Both require registration as a sex offender upon conviction.
Indecency with a Child by Contact is the more serious offense. The Texas statute does not distinguish between touching under the clothes or touching over clothes ñ any sexual contact is punished as a second degree felony. A person commits the offense of Indecency with a Child by Contact if:
With a child younger than 17 years and not the person’s spouse, whether the child is of the same or opposite sex, the person engages in sexual contact with the child or causes the child to engage in sexual contact.
Sexual contact means the following acts, if committed with the intent to arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person:
(1) any touching by a person, including touching through clothing, of the anus, breast, or any part of the genitals of a child; or
(2) any touching of any part of the body of a child, including touching through clothing, with the anus, breast, or any part of the genitals of a person.
Indecency with a Child by Exposure is a third degree felony. A person commits the offense if with intent to arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person he:
(A) exposes the person’s anus or any part of the person’s genitals, knowing the child is present; or
(B) causes the child to expose the child’s anus or any part of the child’s genitals.
The two crimes are often charged in conjunction as separate paragraphs of an indictment. Double jeopardy concerns are raised when the same act is used to prosecute a person for two different crimes. In a prosecution alleging Aggravated Sexual Assault, the acts constituting the assault may also constitute separate crimes of Indecency with a Child by Contact and Indecency with a Child by Exposure. In a prosecution for Indecency with a Child by Contact involving a child touching the genitals of an adult, the crime of Indecency by Exposure would logically also have to have been committed.
Why do these details matter?
Because the rules of evidence concerning extraneous offenses, double jeopardy, the right to election, and jury unanimity are incredibly important protections for innocent people falsely accused of child sex abuse. A three count indictment is more powerful psychologically than a single allegation. Even if all three counts reference the same incident, the news media, the general public, and potential jurors are given a false impression that there was more than one incident. Second, it bolsters prosecution based upon fear rather than proof. Since most people belief “where there’s smoke, there’s fire,” a juror may still convict an innocent person of a lesser charge because while they don’t believe the accused committed the most serious act alleged, he is probably guilty of something. Alleging indecency with a child by contact and indecency with a child by exposure provide two other bites at the apple. Finally, the fundamental nature of the criminal justice system is that the greater offense subsumes the lesser. If a person is accused of murder, the State does not also try to indict him for assault and aggravated assault en route to the completed homicide. When the appellate courts allow the trial courts to aggrandize the number of offenses, it creates inconsistencies in the system.
The fundamental principle of the Constitution is that it shouldn’t matter what you‘re charged with ñ you have the right to a fair trial. Because of political popularity of getting tough on sex offenses, the centuries of due process and presumption of innocence is being sacrificed for cheap political gain. While this damages the credibility of our justice system in general, it is most harmful to innocent people who are falsely accused. Now that the legislature and appellate courts have rewritten the rules to make it easier to convict a group of people charged with a heinous act, pray that you are never wrongfully accused of a sex crime in Texas.
Aggravated Sexual Assault of a Child
Under most of the State laws, aggravated sexual assault against a child is clubbed with the section defining aggravated sexual assault. There are state specific laws on the subject which varies from state to state.
In Texas a person commits the offense of aggravated sexual assault against a child if he or she intentionally or knowingly:
(i) causes the penetration of the anus or sexual organ of a child younger than 14 years of age by any means;
(ii) causes the penetration of the mouth of a child younger than 14 years of age by the sexual organ of the actor;
(iii) causes the sexual organ of a child younger than 14 years of age to contact or penetrate the mouth, anus, or sexual organ of another person, including the actor;
(iv) causes the anus of a child younger than 14 years of age to contact the mouth, anus, or sexual organ of another person, including the actor; or
(v) causes the mouth of a child younger than 14 years of age to contact the anus or sexual organ of another person, including the actor;
A person can still be prosecuted for aggravated sexual assault of a child if the actor:
1. causes serious bodily injury or attempts to cause the death of the victim or another person in the course of the same criminal episode;
2. by acts or words places the victim in fear that death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping will be imminently inflicted on any person;
3. by acts or words occurring in the presence of the victim threatens to cause the death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping of any person;
4. uses or exhibits a deadly weapon in the course of the same criminal episode;
5. acts in concert with another who engages in conduct described by Subdivision (1) directed toward the same victim and occurring during the course of the same criminal episode; or
6. administers or provides flunitrazepam, otherwise known as rohypnol, gamma hydroxybutyrate, or ketamine to the victim of the offense with the intent of facilitating the commission of the offense.
The minimum term of imprisonment for aggravated sexual assault against a child is 25 years if the victim of the offense is younger than six years of age at the time the offense is committed; or the victim of the offense is younger than 14 years of age at the time the offense is committed and the actor commits the offense in a manner described by Subsection (a)(2)(A).
The law as it appears in the statute
Tex. Penal Code ß 22.021. Aggravated Sexual Assault
(a) A person commits an offense:
(1) if the person:
(A) intentionally or knowingly:
(i) causes the penetration of the anus or sexual organ of another person by any means, without that person’s consent;
(ii) causes the penetration of the mouth of another person by the sexual organ of the actor, without that person’s consent; or
(iii) causes the sexual organ of another person, without that person’s consent, to contact or penetrate the mouth, anus, or sexual organ of another person, including the actor; or
(B) intentionally or knowingly:
(i) causes the penetration of the anus or sexual organ of a child by any means;
(ii) causes the penetration of the mouth of a child by the sexual organ of the actor;
(iii) causes the sexual organ of a child to contact or penetrate the mouth, anus, or sexual organ of another person, including the actor;
(iv) causes the anus of a child to contact the mouth, anus, or sexual organ of another person, including the actor; or
(v) causes the mouth of a child to contact the anus or sexual organ of another person, including the actor; and
(A) the person:
(i) causes serious bodily injury or attempts to cause the death of the victim or another person in the course of the same criminal episode;
(ii) by acts or words places the victim in fear that death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping will be imminently inflicted on any person;
(iii) by acts or words occurring in the presence of the victim threatens to cause the death, serious bodily injury, or kidnapping of any person;
(iv) uses or exhibits a deadly weapon in the course of the same criminal episode;
(v) acts in concert with another who engages in conduct described by Subdivision (1) directed toward the same victim and occurring during the course of the same criminal episode; or
(vi) administers or provides flunitrazepam, otherwise known as rohypnol, gamma hydroxybutyrate, or ketamine to the victim of the offense with the intent of facilitating the commission of the offense;
(B) the victim is younger than 14 years of age; or
(C) the victim is an elderly individual or a disabled individual.
(b) In this section:
(1) “Child” has the meaning assigned by Section 22.011(c).
(2) “Elderly individual” and “disabled individual” have the meanings assigned by Section 22.04(c).
(c) An aggravated sexual assault under this section is without the consent of the other person if the aggravated sexual assault occurs under the same circumstances listed in Section 22.011(b).
(d) The defense provided by Section 22.011(d) applies to this section.
(e) An offense under this section is a felony of the first degree.
(f) The minimum term of imprisonment for an offense under this section is increased to 25 years if:
(1) the victim of the offense is younger than six years of age at the time the offense is committed; or
(2) the victim of the offense is younger than 14 years of age at the time the offense is committed and the actor commits the offense in a manner described by Subsection (a)(2)(A).
What makes a Sexual Assault of a Child Charge “Aggravated?”
The offense of Sexual Assault of a Child is defined by Texas Penal Code Sec. 22.011. Basically, the offense involves sexual activity with a person under 17 years of age. Sexual Assault of a Child is Aggravated if the child is under 14 years of age, if a deadly weapon is used or serious bodily injury is threatened. Sexual Assault of a Child is, in most cases, a Second Degree Felony. (2-20 years.) Aggravated Sexual Assault of a Child is a First Degree Felony. (5 to 99 years or life.) If the child was younger than 6 if the child was under six at the time of the offense or there was violence or a threat of violence involved.
What is Indecency with a Child?
Indecency with a Child is defined by Texas Penal Code Sec. 21.11 as either engaging in sexual contact with a child or exposure of one’s anus or genitals to a child under 17 or causing the child to expose his or her anus or genitals to the actor with the intent to arouse or gratify someone sexually. Sexual contact is basically touching of the genitals with intent to arouse or gratify someone sexually. Note that some forms of genital contact may be Sexual Assault of a Child. Indecency with a Child by Contact in most circumstances is a Second Degree Felony. (2 to 20 years.) Indecency with a Child by Exposure is a Third Degree Felony. (2 to 10 years.)
Does the Age of the Accused Matter?
It is an affirmative defense to Indecency with a Child and Sexual Assault of a Child that the actor was not more than three years older than the child, and did not have a prior conviction for certain sexual offenses, and the child was older than 14 and was not related to the actor.
What Should I do if I am Contacted by the Police to Speak to them About an Allegation Against You of Child Sexual Abuse?
The first thing to do is to get a skilled criminal defense lawyer as soon as possible. We see may individuals that have placed themselves at a serious disadvantage by speaking with police investigators without the assistance of counsel. Most people have no idea how coercive police interrogations are. Many individuals come away from an intensive interrogation having said things that were not true. If you are contacted by the police to discuss an allegation of child sexual abuse (or any other type of allegation) you should immediately contact Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson. You and Attorney Johnson can make a decision about whether you should speak to the police at all. If your lawyer advises you to speak to the police, he can be with you to make sure that the questioning is fairly conducted.
How Can I Defend Myself Against a False Accusation of Child Sexual Abuse?
Houston Sexual Assault Lawyer Charles Johnson will investigate your case factually and prepare a defense. It is important to determine why the child has made the accusation. Was the child influenced by an adult? Did the allegations result from improper questioning of the child by authorities? Experts may be added to the defense team to explain to the jury circumstances that could lead to false accusations.
Does Possession of Child Pornography Violate Both State and Federal Law?
Yes. Possession of Child Pornography is prohibited by both Texas law and federal law. Child pornography cases are investigated by local law enforcement, The Texas Office of the Attorney General, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, United States Postal Inspectors and other agencies depending on how the images were discovered. Sometimes state law enforcement officials will begin an investigation but refer the case to the United States Attorney’s Office for prosecution in federal court.
How Can I Defend Myself Against an Accusation of Possession of Child Pornography?
In the age of the Internet, the vast majority of child pornography cases involve digital images found on computer hard drives. The defense lawyer’s first focus is on whether the discovery of the alleged illegal images was in violation of the constitutional rights of the accused. Also, the evidence must show that the accused knew that the images were on the computer hard drive. Examination of the computer’s drive by a forensic expert can sometimes uncover information about who may have place the images on the drive or whether they were intentionally placed there. Further, sometimes the evidence in the case does not prove that the images were of actual children rather than computer generated or altered images. Again, trained experts are needed to make this determination.
Laws in Texas Regarding Sexual Assault of a Child
Child sexual assault is a serious criminal offense in Texas.
Any kind of sexual conduct that harms children, whether physically, emotionally or both, is strictly prohibited in Texas. This includes sexual assault on a child, which is considered particularly heinous in the state. Consequently, engaging in these acts or failing to report this kind of abuse is a serious criminal offense, punishable to the full extent of the law.
Texas Family Code Chapter 261 outlaws any sexual conduct directed at or involving minors as well as failure to report these acts. This includes “fondling, lewd or lascivious exposure or behavior, intercourse, sodomy, oral copulation, penetration of a genital or anal opening by a foreign object, child pornography, child prostitution and any other sexual conduct harmful to a child’s mental, emotional or physical welfare,” according to the website of the Texas Attorney General. Violators are prosecuted to the same extent whether or not children consent to these acts.
Sexual assault and child sex abuse carries severe penalties. Typically, Texas law classifies these offenses as felonies. Additionally, there are specific categories of felonies that different sexual violations fall into in Texas. As of 2010 and according to Texas Penal Code, indecent exposure to a child is a third-degree felony, punishable by 2-10 years in prison and up to $10,000 in fines, while aggravated sexual assault on a child is a first-degree felony punishable by up to 99 years in prison and a fine of up to $10,000. (See References 2 and 4)
Persons convicted of child sexual assault are required to register with law enforcement officials in Texas. Names and information regarding these convicted sexual offenders are then placed in an online database. This database is considered public record, and any member of the community may view it.
Longer Prison Terms
A series of laws known as Ashley’s Laws were enacted by the Texas legislature in late 1990s to increase penalties for those convicted of child sexual assault. Under these laws, offenders are required to serve at least 50 percent of a prison sentence before being granted parole, though they typically end up serving 80 percent of a sentence.
Also in accordance with Ashley’s Laws, those convicted of child sexual assault in Texas who have been proven to be repeat offenders may face harsher penalties for continued sexual offenses. For example, a repeat child sexual abuser convicted of a second-degree felony may be sentenced with the same penalties as a first-degree felony under these laws. Additionally, a “two-strikes” provision was added to Texas state law for child sex offenders. Normally, a person convicted of three felonies in Texas is automatically sentenced to life in prison. This provision allows for an automatic life sentence for only two felony convictions of child sexual assault.
Finally, Ashley’s Laws also make it a legal requirement for convicted child sex offenders to undergo treatment in Texas. Because many traditional forms of treatment have proven ineffective in reducing child sexual abuse recidivism rates, some alternative treatments may be used, including certain behavioral modification programs. Additionally, tests may be administered to monitor progress, including the “plethysmograph” test, which monitors sexual arousal when presented with certain materials.
Sexual Assault of a Child: Hire the Best Houston Criminal Defense Attorney Charles Johnson
- In Texas, for purposes of the Sexual Assault of a Child and Indecency with a Child crimes, a child does not become an adult until age 17. For other sexual-related offenses, including Possession of Child Pornography and Sexual Performance of a Child, the age of an adult is 18 years.
- In Texas, it is not a defense that the accused did not know the child’s real age. So, the alleged victim could have lied about her age to the accused and the accused will still face criminal charges.The alleged victim cannot legally consent to sexual relations unless the alleged victim is 14 years of age or older and there is only a 3 year or less difference between the ages of the alleged victim and the accused.
- In Texas, only one eye-witness, the alleged victim, is sufficient for conviction, so long as the jury believes the alleged victim beyond a reasonable doubt.
- In Texas, neither genital trauma nor DNA evidence is required for a conviction.
- In Texas, voluntary intoxication is not a defense. So, if the accused goes to a party, gets drunk and sleeps with an underage girl, he cannot use his intoxication as a defense to the crime of Sexual Assault of a Child.
- In Texas, each separate sexual act can be separately charged within one indictment and, if there is a conviction, each Count can be stacked or served consecutively.
With these types of sexual offenses, there are many other legal issues involved. If a person is charged with sexual assault of a child, possession of child pornography or any type of sex offense, it is important to retain a criminal defense attorney who is experienced defending Texas sex offenses.
If you or a loved one has been charged with the sexual assault of a child, it is important that you contact an experience defense attorney immediately. The consequences for the sexual assault of a child if convicted can be several years in prison and the requirement to register on the sex offender registry. It is never a good idea to represent yourself in court. In a case like this, it is especially important that you find an experienced defense lawyer right away. Even if you have not been charged yet, it would be helpful for you to contact us via phone, anytime night or day, for a free consultation. The defense attorneys at the Charles Johnson Law Firm have had extraordinary success in defending serious cases such as the sexual assault of a child as well as other sex crimes. There are different levels of charges as well as different penalties for charges of sexual assault of a child. During consultation we can explain to you the details of what is possible in your specific case once you provide us with details regarding the matter. Contact Houston Sex Crimes Lawyer Charles Johnson directly at (713) 222-7577 today for a free of charge consultation.
Download “False Allegations of Sexual Assault of a Minor: Guilty Until Proven Innocent by Houston Sex Crimes Lawyer Charles Johnson” in PDF Format
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Charles Johnson |
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As a result of the increased efforts of local and national law enforcement task forces to discover Online Solicitation of Minors or Importuning, Houston Sex Crimes Lawyer Charles Johnson has frequently represented individuals who have been accused of communicating with a minor using the computer. In fact, the law in most jurisdictions allows for an officer to pose as a minor while communicating with a suspect. Soliciting either an actual minor or a police officer posing as a minor may result in the filing of charges and subsequent prosecution. A common misconception is that no crime is committed unless there is an actual meeting. In actuality, the offense of On-line Solicitation or Importuning may be completed merely through the communication or “chat.” If there is an attempt to actually meet, additional charges may be warranted.
Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson is well-versed in the various defenses that must be explored in all cases of this kind. These defenses may include issues of entrapment, client knowledge, or jurisdictional questions.
Accusation of soliciting a minor online can often result from entrapment-type situations commonly depicted on televisions shows. However, soliciting a minor online can also be the result of a mistake or an accident. For example, an individual can be charged with soliciting a minor when they thought they were communicating with an adult on the computer, but may have actually been talking to an underage person. No matter the reason for the false claims against you, it is important to contact an experienced sex crimes defense lawyer who will make every effort to find defenses or other mitigating factors that will result in an acquittal of the charges against you.
An allegation of On-line Solicitation or Importuning calls for great effort and resources, as the stakes are high – one faces not only a potential prison term, but also the stigmatizing and debilitating effects of sex offender public registration, which makes it difficult if not impossible to obtain employment, and may even severely restrict one’s ability to reside in certain locations.
Jurors are often familiar with programs like “To Catch a Predator”, giving them preconceived notions which need to be addressed and diffused. Our lawyers know first-hand that with thoughtful and extensive examination of pertinent case law and pre-trial motions, a successful defense of On-line Solicitation and Importuning allegations can be achieved.
It is important to remember that if you have been accused of soliciting a minor online, the state prosecutor is required to prove every element of the offense beyond a reasonable doubt. This can be a very difficult burden of proof to meet, and any doubt in the mind of the judge or jury can result in a dismissal or reduction of the charges against you. Therefore, it is essential to contact an experienced Child Sex Abuse lawyer to help you begin developing the best legal defense for your particular case. Contact Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson for a free consultation today at 713-222-7577 anytime, night or day if you have been falsely accused of soliciting a minor online.
Online Solicitation of a Minor Defined
Since the 1990′s, the internet has changed the way we communicate, do business, meet people, and almost all other aspects of our lives. Unfortunately, it has also led to new criminal charges, many of which carry steep penalties. The most severe online offenses are those related to the potential harm of an underage person, such as online solicitation of a minor.
Online solicitation of a minor is communication with a minor via the internet that aims to arouse, sexually gratify, harass, or arrange to meet a minor face-to-face in the real world. In Texas, a minor is any person who is 17 years of age or younger. Exchanging sexually oriented materials, conversations, or invitations with a minor is a serious legal offense in our state.
Sexual exploitation can result in numerous physical and psychological consequences for children that may be multiplied for victims of child pornography because they face a lifetime of possible revictimization through the continued distribution of videos, photographs, or computer images depicting their exploitation (Klain, 2001). The mass media continues to feed into the stereotype that all Internet offenders are “predators” or “pedophiles”. According to ABC World News Tonight in June 2006, there are approximately 563,000 registered sex offenders nationally. However, decades of research indicates that only ten percent (10%) of sex offenders are truly predatory in nature.
This is not to discount that Internet victimization is one of the most dangerous Internet threats, but society must be cautious in using such characteristics without empirical data to support such a homogenous label. In the National Juvenile Online Victimization (N-JOV) study, approximately seventy-eight percent (78%) of cases, the offender was one of the victim’s family members, second generation family member such as grandparents, uncle or aunt, or stepparents or parent’s intimate partner.
Children exploring the Internet for education and entertainment are at risk of encountering sexually explicit material, sexual exploitation, and Internet offenses while remaining undetected by parents. The Internet has become a conduit for sexually explicit material and offenses against children. Children are extremely vulnerable to victimization due to their curiosity, naiveté, and trusting nature. These crimes present law enforcement with many complex problems due to the fact that they transcend jurisdictional boundaries and often involve multiple victims in multiple states and countries. Internet crimes must be pursued vigorously by law enforcement.
The greatest obstacle facing law enforcement is that children and parents do not report the majority of Internet crimes. In situations where the abuse is a parent, a relative, or acquaintance, the abuse may be more likely to come to light inadvertently as a result of inquiries by social welfare and reports from neighbors, rather than as a result of police inquiries into online crime (Wolak, 2005, in press). Community involvement, parental supervision, and early intervention and prevention programs on Internet safety are essential in protecting children from online solicitation and exposure to pornography.
The computer age presents complex challenges for law enforcement, victim services, parents, legislators, and the community. The proliferation of computer technology obviously has enhanced our lives in many ways, such as enabling improved productivity and efficiency at work, school, and home (U.S. Department of Justice, 2001). Unfortunately, this technology is not without potential threats and harm for criminals to prey upon innocent victims. According to ABC World News Tonight in June 2006, there are approximately 563,000 registered sex offenders nationally. End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (EPCAT) International reports violence and harms against children and young people in cyberspace include: the production, distribution, and use of materials depicting child sexual abuse; online solicitation; exposure to materials that can cause psychological harm, lead to physical harm, or facilitate other detriments to a child; and harassment and intimidation.
Today the Internet has approximately two hundred (200) million users worldwide who can communicate with each other. Children of all ages are browsing the Internet. Forty-five (45%) of children in the United States, more than thirty (30) million of whom are younger than eighteen (18) use the Internet. By 2005, it was estimated that there are seventy-seven (77) million children online. Approximately one hundred three (103) million people use instant messaging (IM) programs such as AOL’s AIM, Microsoft’s MSN Messenger, and others. MySpace.com reports more than eighty-five (85) million members and the number of visitors to MySpace went from 4.9 million in 2005 to currently over sixty-seven (67) million. Like most new technological developments, this brings both positive and negative implications, especially for parents and their children.
Some children are especially at risk due to a range of vulnerability-enhancing factors common to all environments. They are in socially and economically difficult situations, have experienced sexual abuse and exploitation, are lonely, or feel alienated from their parents. Others have low self-esteem, feel awkward, are confused about their personal identity and sexuality, and lack confidence. Gender is also seen to be a risk factor, with seemingly more girls than boys appearing to be harmed through cyberspace interactions (although boys are increasingly featured in pornographic images circulating online).
Demographics of an Internet Offender
Sex offenders and child pornographers are a heterogeneous mixture. Before the advent of the Internet, between one-fifth and one-third of people arrested for possession of child pornography were also involved in actual abuse. The majority are male and come from all socio-economic and racial backgrounds. Many are skilled in technology. Not all fit the clinical classification of “pedophilia”. The mass media continues to feed into the stereotype that all Internet offenders are “predators” or “pedophiles”. This is not to discount that Internet victimization is one of the most dangerous Internet threats but society must be cautious in using such characteristics without empirical data to support such a homogenous label. We have to remember that in a previous generation, campaigns to prevent child molestation characterized the threat as “playground predator” or “stranger danger” so that for years the problem of youth, acquaintance, and intra-family perpetrators went unrecognized.
In an analysis of 600 cases of child sexual abuse in which the Internet played a role, either the offender- victim relationship was initiated or conducted online, the case involved the online sharing or distribution of child pornography, or the case involved child pornography stored on a computer or digital media. One hundred twenty six (126) cases involved a face-to-face relationship between the offender and the victim prior to any use of the Internet in committing abuse. N-JOV data indicated that the Internet was involved in eighteen percent (18%) of all sex crimes against minors and that nearly half of the eighteen percent (18%) were committed by acquaintances or family members, with a total of at least 460 arrests a year. This study found ninety-five percent (95%) were non-Hispanic Caucasians and forty-seven percent (47%) were twenty-six (26) or older. Thirty-five percent (35%) were married and over a third lived in small towns. Eighty percent (80%) were employed full time and fifty-one percent (51%) had incomes ranging from $20,000-$50,000 per year.
Identifying Internet Offenders
There is no one type of Internet child pornography user, and there is no easy way to recognize an offender. In the 2005 Wolak survey, solicitors did not match the stereotype of the older male “Internet predator”. Many were identified as other youth and some were female. Having a preconceived idea of a child sex offender can be unhelpful and prove a distraction for investigating police. Those convicted of sexually abusing children will not necessarily seek out or collect pornography, with one study putting the number of offenders who do so at around ten percent (10%).
This explosion of computer use, and the ease with which identities can be concealed on-line, has offered obvious opportunities to those who produce and consume pornography and those who seek to exploit vulnerable populations for sexual gratification. The Internet technology affords perpetrators a foundation for repeated, long-term victimization of a child. These crimes present law enforcement with many complex problems due to the fact that they transcend jurisdictional boundaries and often involve multiple victims in multiple states and countries.
N-JOV data reflected that the most common use of the Internet with family (70%) and acquaintance (65%) offenders was for seduction or grooming of victims either through online conversations or sharing of pornographic images. Forty-nine percent (49%) of family offenders and thirty-nine percent (39%) of acquaintance offenders produced pornographic images of their victims, which they stored or disseminated using the Internet. Forty-three percent (43%) used the Internet to arrange a face-to-face meeting. Relatively small numbers of offenders (2-4%) used the Internet as an inducement to enter the offender’s home and use it to advertise or sell victims online. Seventy-five percent (75%) of these cases involved some form of sexual contact and forty-five percent (45%) involved intercourse or other penetration. In a quarter of these cases, the sexual contact continued for over a year before being reported to the police.
How Sex Offenders Select Victims
A greater number of sex offenders are using the Internet searching for potential child victims through “kid only” or “kid friendly” chat rooms, online games, and instant messenger. The “set-up” for victimization requires long-term thought and planning. But a distinctive aspect of interaction in cyberspace that facilitates the grooming process is the rapid speed with which communication can become intimate. Chat rooms can be frequented by sex offenders that groom and manipulate their victims by playing on the emotional immaturity of children in virtual anonymity. The goal of the “set-up” is to gain control over the victim. The length of time spent during the “set-up” varies upon the vulnerability of the child. The longer an offender knows a child the better they are at “zeroing” in their grooming tactics and strategies.
Grooming is a term used to describe the process of desensitizing and manipulating the victim(s) and/or others for the purpose of gaining an opportunity to commit a sexually deviant act [Title 22, Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 810.2(b)(15)]. Grooming inflicts psychological harm on the child. In teen chat rooms, the activities that precede the process of initiating direct contact with a child may simply involve the offender providing a description of themselves to all of the users of the public chat room so that the offender is masquerading as a particular kind of child, of a particular age, in the hope of attracting an equivalent age and the same or opposite sex child (i.e. 14/m/tx) (O’Connell, 2001). A sex offender may begin victim selection by observation in which an offender may “lurk” in chat rooms or massive multiplayer online games listening to conversations between children. An offender may search public profiles that include information such as name, age, location, hobbies, interests, and photographs. The offender will then wait for a child’s response and determine if they will initiate a conversation. After selecting a victim, the offender will introduce him or herself by instant message (IM) or by a private message to the child. Additionally, victim selection can involve viewing the child’s public profile. A victim’s information may be obtained through an Internet service provider request or a URL a child must provide in order to create their own website.
In the initial stages of grooming, the offender will suggest that the child move from a public domain to a private chat room or IM for an exclusive one-to-one conversation. The offender will engage in conversations related to school, home, hobbies, parental relationships, or interests of the child. The offender will gather information regarding the likelihood of activities being detected. The offender will manipulate the child to create an illusion of being the child’s best friend. The interactions take on the characteristics of a strong sense of mutuality (i.e. a mutual respect club comprised of two people that must ultimately remain a secret from all others). During these interactions, the child is praised, made to feel special, and very positive conversations are tailored to the age of the child. Gifts or money may be offered to the child. Sadly, sex offenders tend to target children who are neglected or come from dysfunctional homes. For these children, the sex offender offers an alternative relationship that makes the child feel special and loved.
The offender introduces the idea of trust, affection, and loyalty but it is based on deception and manipulation. This grooming tactic provides a forum to move into the next stage of victimization. The offender will begin to exploit social norms and test the child’s boundaries. The offender could ask the child “have you been kissed?”, “have you ever been skinny dipping?”, or “do you wear a bikini?” If the child does not respond negatively to the boundary violation, it is tantamount to accepting the behavior or language. During boundary violations, the offender has positioned the child into believing that they share a deep sense of mutual trust.
Offenders who intend to maintain a relationship with a child will progress carefully and methodically into sexually explicit language. The nature of the conversations will progress from mild conversations (i.e. “I love you” or “I want to kiss you”) to extremely explicit (i.e. masturbation or oral sex). The target child may be drawn into producing pornography by sending photos, using a web-cam or engaging in sexual discussions. To silence the child and ensure their continued compliance in sexual exploitation, the offender may use a variety of tactics including rewards, violence, threats, bribery, punishment, coercion, peer pressure, and fear (Klain, 2001). Research indicates that this pattern of conversations is characteristic of an online relationship that may progress to a request for a face-to-face meeting.
Child Pornography Under federal law, child pornography is defined as a visual depiction of any kind, including a drawing, cartoon, sculpture, or painting, photograph, film, video, or computer-generated image or picture, whether made or produced by electronic, mechanical, or other means, of sexually explicit conduct, where it
- depicts a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct and is obscene, or
- depicts an image that is, or appears to be, of a minor engaging in graphic bestiality, sadistic or masochistic abuse, or sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex, and such depiction lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value (18 U.S.C §1466A and 18 U.S.C. §2256)
Sexually explicit conduct includes various forms of sexual activity such as intercourse, bestiality, masturbation, sadistic or masochistic abuse, and lascivious exhibition of the genitals. It is illegal to possess, distribute, or manufacture these images.
Pornography and Child Pornography on the Internet
Both adult and child pornography has saturated the Internet due to the lack of censorship by the industry. The Internet provides the social, individual, and technological circumstances in which an interest in child pornography flourishes. Cyberspace is host to more than one (1) million images of tens of thousands of children subjected to sexual abuse and exploitation. Of the estimated 24.7 million Internet users between the ages of ten (10) and seventeen (17), approximately 8.4 million youths received unwanted exposure to sexual material.
Child pornography is the second highest category, after indecent exposure, of sexual re-offense behavior. The vast majority of children who appear in child pornography have not been abducted or physically forced to participate. In most cases the child knows the producer and it may even be their father who manipulates the child into taking part by more subtle means. Most children feel a pressure to cooperate with the offender and not to disclose the offense, both out of loyalty to the offender and a sense of shame about their own behavior.
Physical contact between a child and a perpetrator does not need to occur for a child to become a victim or for a crime to be committed. Innocent pictures or images of children can be digitally transformed into pornographic material and distributed across the Internet without the victim’s knowledge (U.S. Department of Justice, 2001). Digital graphic software (i.e. Photoshop, Illustrator, Microsoft PhotoEditor) allow offenders to edit “innocent” pictures. After a picture is scanned into a computer, these image-editing programs can be used to put several photos together or to distort pictures and create a believable image of a reality that never existed. This process is called “morphing”. In some countries, morphed images or pictures are not illegal. Offenders may claim in court that a picture is morphed, no matter how disturbing, is not a picture of a real child or a situation which actually took place, and thus is not illegal.
In April 2002, the United States Supreme Court found that provisions of the Child Pornography Act (CPPA), which prohibited the depiction of virtual and simulated child pornography, were invalid under the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The Court found that in the absence of a “real” child, the Court could see no “direct link” between such images and the sexual abuse of children. The Court’s majority could not see a substantial risk of producers of child pornography using virtual images of children. Additionally, children can be exposed to “virtual” pornography. Virtual pornography is legal the United States and in some other countries.
In the 2005 Wolak study, almost all of the arrested child pornography possessors (91%) used home computers to access child pornography and almost one (1) in five (5) arrested (18%) used a home computer in more than one (1) location to access child pornography. Additionally, Wolak found that in fourteen percent (14%) of child pornography investigations, the offenders not only had possessed pornography but had sexually victimized children and two percent (2%) possessed pornography and attempted to sexually victimize children. Eighty-four percent (84%) of the investigations involving child pornography did not detect concurrent child sexual victimization or attempts at victimization (Wolak, 2005). According to the United States Postal Inspection Service, forty percent (40%) of child pornographers investigated have sexually molested children. From January 1997 through March 2004, 1,807 child pornographers were arrested and 620 (34%) of these offenders were confirmed child molesters (Kim, 2004).
Although most Internet pornography is created offline, technology has evolved to create “real” life pornography that can be viewed in real time, using web-cameras, phone cameras, digital cameras, and streaming video. A user can be notified of the date and time to log on the computer to view a child being sexually abused. The advent of mini-cameras has allowed for pictures and videos to be created without the subject’s knowledge. The user may pay money or exchange images with the direct abuser (Palmer, 2004).
These illegal images can be presented in various forms including print media, videotape, film, compact disc, read-only memory (CD-ROM), or digital versatile technology (DVD) (Klain, 2001) and can be transmitted through computer bulletin-board systems (BBS), USENET Newsgroups, Internet Relay Chat, web-based groups, peer-to-peer technology, and an array of constantly changing world wide web sites.
Using Child Pornography to Groom Children
Children can be exposed to pornography through spam or potential abusers. The accessibility of pornography online, the ease and perceived anonymity of transmission, and the environment of “virtuality” itself makes the use of pornography in online grooming easier for an abuser. Pornography is a tool for inducting and socializing a child into behaviors that reflect the content of the pornographic materials. Sex offenders frequently use pornography as a tool to assist them in the grooming process.
Children exploring the Internet for education and entertainment are at risk of encountering sexually explicit material, sexual exploitation, and offenses against children while remaining undetected by parents. Children are extremely vulnerable to victimization due to their curiosity, naiveté, and trusting nature. The Internet has become a conduit for sexually explicit material and offenses against children. In 2006, Wolak reported fifty-four percent (54%) of boys and forty-six percent (46%) of girls received unwanted exposure to sexual material. Ninety percent (90%) of all solicitations happened to teenagers (ages 13 to 17). Eighty-six percent (86%) received images of naked people and fifty-seven percent (57%) received pictures of people having sex and/or violent or deviant images. Lastly, eighty-three percent (83%) of unwanted exposures occurred when youth were surfing the web and eighty-nine percent (89%) of incidents the senders were unable to be identified.
Sex offenders use pornography to escalate the relationship with the child. According to the Klain study, the most common purposes for which offenders use child pornography are:
- Pornography creates a permanent record for sexual arousal and gratification.
- Pornography lowers the child’s inhibitions to engage in sexual behavior.
- Pornography may be used to teach children how to behave, pose, or re-enact scenes.
- Pornography may be used to blackmail child victims by threatening to show the photographs, videos, or other depictions to parents, friends, or teachers. The threat becomes more potent because the child may fear punishment by the criminal justice system.
- Pornography created to sell for profit or trade between individuals. The Internet’s anonymity, enhanced by increasingly sophisticated encryption technology, facilitates the increasing demand for child pornography.
Repeated exposure to adult and child pornography is deliberately used to diminish the child’s inhibitions, break barriers to sexual arousal, desensitize the child that sex is normal, and arouse the victim. Children depicted in pictures are often smiling or have neutral expressions, a factor that appears to be designed to represent the children as willing participants in sexual or degrading acts. There is a recent trend for pictures to be taken in domestic settings such as a kitchen or bedroom, thus further “normalizing” the activity for children who view images.
It has been reported that children under ten (10) who have been exposed to sexually exploitative material have themselves become users of it. Eight percent (8%) of youths admitted to going voluntarily to X-rated sites. Children at most risk of being violated through pornography productions are within the home and family. The child knows their abuser as a parent, a relative, a guardian, or an acquaintance. In these situations, the abuse may be more likely to come to light inadvertently as a result of inquiries by social welfare and reports from neighbors, rather than as a result of police inquiries into online crime.
Reporting Internet Crimes
The impact of online child victimization (i.e. solicitation and harassment) is not completely understood. Family dynamics often play a significant role in children’s denial of a crime and their willingness to participate in the investigation and prosecution. A child’s ability to acknowledge and accept the crime can be linked to family values, peer pressure, and feelings of guilt, shame, and embarrassment. Only three percent (3%) of all incidents of predators harassing children on the Internet is reported. The Crimes against Children Research Center found less than ten percent (10%) of sexual solicitations and only three percent (3%) of unwanted exposure episodes were reported to authorities such as a law-enforcement agency, an Internet service provider, or a hotline. In 2005, only one (1) incident out of more than 500 incidents of sexually explicit material was ever reported to an Internet service provider.
Ninety-five percent (95%) of parents could not identify common chat room lingo that teenagers use to warn people they are chatting with that their parents were watching (NCMEC, 2005). Ninety-two percent (92%) of parents did not know the meaning of A/S/L (Age/Sex/Location) (NCMEC, 2005). Parents should watch for the following questionable abbreviations:
- 53x means “sex”
- 121 means “one to one”
- A/S/L means age, sex, location. Watch for personal information being exchanged (i.e. 14/m/tx). This is a 14 year old male from Texas.
- CYBER used as a verb and means “cybersex”
- CONNECT means “to talk privately”
- DIKU means “do I know you”
- ESAD means “eat sh*t and die”
- F2F, FTF means “face to face” or “let’s meet F2F”
- FOAD means “f*ck off and die”
- GP means “go private”
- H4U means “hot for you”
- H&K means “hugs and kisses”
- ILU means “I love you”
- IWALU means “I will always love you”
- KOC means “kiss on the cheek”
- KOL means “kiss on the lips”
- LTR means “long term relationship”
- LMIRL means “lets meet in real life”
- LUWAMH means “love you with all my heart”
- LU means “love you”
- MOSS means “member of the same sex”
- MOTOS means “member of the opposite sex”
- MUSM means “miss you so much”
- NIFOC means “naked in front of the computer”
- OLL means “online love”
- P2P means “person to person”
- P911 means “my parents are coming”
- PA means “parent alert”
- PAL means “parents are listening”
- PANB means “parents are near by”
- PM means “private message or one on one chat”
- POS means “parent over shoulder”
- pr0n is an alternate spelling for porn or pornography
- PDA means “public display of affection”
- RL, IRL means “in real life as in “wants to see you IRL”
- SWAK means “sealed with a kiss”
- TOY means “thinking of you”
- WIBNI means “wouldn’t it be nice if”
- WTGP means “want to go private”
- WUF means “where are you from”
- WTF means “what the f*ck”
Acronyms and words used in daily IM or discussion boards
- AFAIK means “as far as I know”
- BTW means “by the way”
- CUL means “see you later”
- HHOK means “ha ha only kidding”
- IANAL means “I am not a lawyer”
- IIRC means “if I remember correctly”
- IMHO means “in my humble opinion”
- KEWL means “cool”
- OMG means “oh my god”
- OTOH means “on the other hand”
- WUT^2 “what up with you too”
Characteristics of Youth Who Form Close Online Relationships
- Sixteen percent (16%) of girls and twelve (12%) of boys have close online relationships.
- Girls aged fourteen (14) to seventeen (17) were twice as likely as girls ten (10) to thirteen (13) to form close online relationships.
- High parent-child conflict and being highly troubled were associated with close online relationships. Girls with high levels of parent-child conflict report yelling, nagging, and privileges by parents at higher levels than other girls. The highly troubled girls had levels of depression, victimization, and troubling life events at higher levels than other girls.
- Boys who had low communications with their parents, and who also reported that their parents were less likely to know where and who they were with were the most strongly associated with close online relationships.
- Girls and boys who reported high levels of Internet use and home Internet access were more likely to report close online relationships.
- Youths with problems were most likely to attend a face-to-face meeting with people they first met online.
Warning Signs that a Child may be at Risk
- Excessive use of online services especially during the late night hours
- Unsupervised time in unmonitored chat rooms
- Mood swings and withdraws
- Greater desire to spend time with people online than with “real life” people
- Unexplained files downloaded (i.e. .jpd, .gif, .bmp, .tif, .pcx, .mov, .avi, .wmv, or .mpg)
Defenses to Online Solicitation of a Minor
People are often arrested and charged with online solicitation when they meet the minor in question in person. However, it is important to note that a person can still be charged with this offense even if the meeting never occurs. Despite this, a person may be found innocent of online solicitation if one or both of the following apply:
- He or she is legally married to the minor in question
- He or she is less than three years older than the minor
Solicitation of a minor laws have frequently been challenged by defendants on the basis that they violate a defendant’s right to free speech, but have survived such claims. Viable defenses remaining will depend on a particular state’s laws. Some earlier laws required a defendant to actually communicate with a child and defendants could raise the defense of impossibility where prosecution involved communication with an officer who was merely posing as a child but who was in actuality an adult. In response to the success of the impossibility defense, many state statutes changed their laws to permit a conviction based on a defendant’s belief that they were talking to a minor. Other states have also built in “Romeo and Juliet” defenses for a defendant who is involved in a dating relationship with a child who was not more than three years younger than the defendant.
Although not an outright “defense,” another defensive angle is to prove that the defendant did not know that the person on the other end was a minor. Most states have strict liability laws — which means the state is not required to prove that a defendant knew how old the child was, only that the child was underage. However, some juries have engaged in “jury nullification,” by finding a defendant not guilty if they believed that the defendant did not have a reason to believe the child was underage. Showing that the conversation was just an online fantasy or proving that they never intended to actually meet the minor are generally not good defenses. Before a defendant decides to pursue a defensive theory, they should discuss the practicality of the defense with a criminal attorney in their area.
Solicitation of a Minor: Misdemeanor or Felony?
Online solicitation of a minor is usually classified as a felony level offense. As with most felonies, the range of punishment can include a deferred or suspended sentence, up to several years in prison. A defendant in Texas can receive anywhere from two to twenty years in prison. Although a deferred sentence can allow a defendant to remain free, the restrictions of probation tend to be more intense for online solicitation charges because they are considered sexually related offenses. The court can order a defendant to submit to maintenance polygraphs, complete individual or group sex offender counseling, to submit to a sex offender evaluation, and to refrain from being around any children while on probation. The court can also require a defendant to pay for these programs which can run up to $500.00 or more per month.
The long-term consequences can be even more severe. Because online solicitation of a minor is considered a sexually related offense, a defendant can be required to register as a sex offender. If a defendant fails to register, they can be charged with a new felony offense of failure to register as a sex offender. Once a defendant has a sexually related offense on their record, some states will significantly increase the punishment for a second offense if a defendant is ever charged with another sexually related offense. Beyond the court system, online solicitation will also affect employment opportunities. With more open access to the court systems, more employers are performing background checks and will not hire certain candidates. Applicants with sexually related offenses are generally the first to get cut.
When you have been charged with a severe legal offense, it is very important to understand your rights and defense options. An experienced Houston Criminal Lawyer can help you decide what steps you need to take next. The attorneys of the Charles Johnson Law Firm are aggressive child sex crime defense lawyers who will make every effort to fight the allegations against you. Contact us for a free consultation today at 713-222-7577 anytime, night or day if you have been falsely accused of soliciting a minor online.
Arrested For Online Solicitation of a Minor? The Right Houston Criminal Lawyer Can Make a Difference
by Charles Johnson
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News Stories Related to Online Solicitation of a Minor Arrests in Houston:
Local Man Arrested For Online Solicitation Of Minor
MART (August 20, 2014) A Mart man was held in the McLennan County Jail Wednesday in lieu of $10,000 bond, charged with online solicitation of a minor. An affidavit for arrest issued to Mart police says Michael James Reid, 27, used his Facebook account to ...
KWTX - Aug 20 2014
Mart man accused of soliciting minor online
A man was arrested Tuesday after he allegedly sent an inappropriate ... was booked in to the McLennan County Jail at about 2 p.m. Tuesday and charged with online solicitation of a minor. An affidavit alleges the girl’s mother discovered the photo and ...
Waco Tribune-Herald - Aug 20 2014
Longview police arrest man for online solicitation of a minor
LONGVIEW, TX (KLTV) - A Diana man has been arrested and charged with online solicitation of a minor and unlawful carrying of a weapon. Gregg Lee Haden, 36, was booked into the Gregg County Jail on Tuesday. An officer with the Longview Police Department ...
7 KLTV - Jun 15 2011
Local man accused of soliciting 13-year-old girl
Mart, TX — A Mart man was arrested by police and charged with online solicitation of a minor on Wednesday. Michael James Reid, 27, was taken to McLennan County Jail and held on a $10,000 bond. Police documents state, the 27-year-old sent inappropriate ...
KWKT Fox 44 - Aug 21 2014
Hartford police make child solicitation arrest
An Ariton man faces multiple felony charges in connection to the electronic solicitation of a child. Assist Hartford Police Chief Ben Berry said police arrested 23-year-old ... contact ing a “decoy” through an online website called meetme.com where ...
Dothan Eagle - Aug 19 2014
Mart man accused of soliciting minor online
A man was arrested Tuesday after he allegedly sent an inappropriate ... was booked in to the McLennan County Jail at about 2 p.m. Tuesday and charged with online solicitation of a minor. An affidavit alleges the girl’s mother discovered the photo and ...
Waco Tribune-Herald - Aug 20 2014
5 arrested in online solicitation sting
A multi-agency sting last month resulted in the arrests of five men who are accused of attempting ... The charge was felony online solicitation of a minor, police said. Along with the Conroe Police Department, the Montgomery County District Attorney's ...
Chron - Nov 05 2013
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Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson aggressively defends clients charged with a sexual offense. He handles all sexual offense charges, whether in state or federal court, and whether the sex crime allegations are against children or adults.
Parties in contentious divorce or custody proceedings have been known to encourage children to say the other parent “touched” them a certain way or otherwise imply molestation. Child care workers, pastors, teachers, coaches, and others are frequently falsely accused. Parents have even been known to target individuals for extortion by coaching children. They may be coached by well-meaning social service and health care professionals, law enforcement officers, and prosecuting attorneys who want to make sure they obtain a conviction regardless of the truth.
Allegations of sex crimes are taken very seriously in Texas, and across the nation. With more stringent penalties being imposed, a false claim unchallenged or a single error in judgment can require you to be a lifelong member of the sex offenders’ registry and database. Before your reputation is devastated, invoke your right to an attorney and your right to remain silent. Contact Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson for a free phone consultation when you are under investigation for sex crimes or if charges have been brought against you for anything from possession and distribution of child pornography to sexual assault and rape.
How is Child Pornography Defined?
Federal and state laws make it a crime to produce, possess, distribute, or sell pornographic materials that exploit or portray a minor. Increasingly, child pornography laws are being utilized to punish use of computer technology and the Internet to obtain, share, and distribute pornographic material involving children, including images and films.
Under federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256), child pornography is defined as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture, or computer or computer-generated image or picture, whether made or produced by electronic, mechanical, or other means, of sexually explicit conduct, where
- the production of the visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; or
- the visual depiction is a digital image, computer image, or computer-generated image that is, or is indistinguishable from, that of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; or
- the visual depiction has been created, adapted, or modified to appear that an identifiable minor is engaging in sexually explicit conduct.Federal law (18 U.S.C. §1466A) also criminalizes knowingly producing, distributing, receiving, or possessing with intent to distribute, a visual depiction of any kind, including a drawing, cartoon, sculpture or painting, that
- depicts a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct and is obscene, or
- depicts an image that is, or appears to be, of a minor engaging in graphic bestiality, sadistic or masochistic abuse, or sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex and such depiction lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Sexually explicit conduct is defined under federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256) as actual or simulated sexual intercourse (including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex), bestiality, masturbation, sadistic or masochistic abuse, or lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area of any person.
Who Is a Minor?
For purposes of enforcing the federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256), “minor” is defined as a person under the age of 18.
Is Child Pornography a Crime?
Yes, it is a federal crime to knowingly possess, manufacture, distribute, or access with intent to view child pornography (18 U.S.C. §2252). In addition, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have laws criminalizing the possession, manufacture, and distribution of child pornography. As a result, a person who violates these laws may face federal and/or state charges.
Where Is Child Pornography Predominantly Found?
Child pornography exists in multiple formats including print media, videotape, film, CD-ROM, or DVD. It is transmitted on various platforms within the Internet including newsgroups, Internet Relay Chat (chatrooms), Instant Message, File Transfer Protocol, e-mail, websites, and peer-to-peer technology.
What Motivates People Who Possess Child Pornography?
Limited research about the motivations of people who possess child pornography suggests that child pornography possessors are a diverse group, including people who are
- sexually interested in prepubescent children or young adolescents, who use child pornography for sexual fantasy and gratification
- sexually “indiscriminate,” meaning they are constantly looking for new and different sexual stimuli
- sexually curious, downloading a few images to satisfy that curiosity
- interested in profiting financially by selling images or setting up web sites requiring payment for access
Who Possesses Child Pornography?
It is difficult to describe a “typical” child pornography possessor because there is not just one type of person who commits this crime.
In a study of 1,713 people arrested for the possession of child pornography in a 1-year period, the possessors ran the gamut in terms of income, education level, marital status, and age. Virtually all of those who were arrested were men, 91% were white, and most were unmarried at the time of their crime, either because they had never married (41%) or because they were separated, divorced, or widowed (21%).3
Forty percent (40%) of those arrested were “dual offenders,” who sexually victimized children and possessed child pornography, with both crimes discovered in the same investigation. An additional 15% were dual offenders who attempted to sexually victimize children by soliciting undercover investigators who posed online as minors.4
Who Produces Child Pornography?
Based on information provided by law enforcement to the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children’s Child Victim Identification Program, more than half of the child victims were abused by someone who had legitimate access to them such as parents, other relatives, neighborhood/family friends, babysitters, and coaches.
What is the Nature of These Images?
The content in these illegal images varies from exposure of genitalia to graphic sexual abuse, such as penetration by objects, anal penetration, and bestiality.
Of the child pornography victims identified by law enforcement, 42% appear to be pubescent, 52% appear to be prepubescent, and 6% appear to be infants or toddlers.
Possible Punishment for Sexual Exploitation of a Minor/Child Pornography
If the photographs include children who are fourteen (14) years of age or younger, it is a Dangerous Crimes Against Children (DCAC) and carries a very severe penalty. A first offense carries the following punishment for each and every conviction: ten (10) years minimum in prison; seventeen (17) years presumptive in prison; twenty-four (24) years maximum incarceration.
If convicted of one previous predicate felony (which includes a prior DCAC, among other serious felonies), the range of punishment increases to a minimum twenty-one (21) years, presumptive twenty-eight years (28), and maximum thirty-five (35) years. Because this is a DCAC, 100% of the prison time must be served before being eligible for release. In addition, if the person is convicted of two (2) counts, they must be run consecutive to each other (i.e., the minimum is now twenty (20) years in prison, and all other ranges double). This is why these charges are sometimes referred to as “life enders”.
The maximum penalty on a Sexual Exploitation charge actually carries more time than the maximum penalty on a Second Degree Murder charge. A conviction will require you to register as a Sex Offender for the rest of your life, and you are not allowed to have any contact with anyone under the age of eighteen (18) (this includes your own children), without going through numerous testing procedures and only with the consent of your Probation Officer.
If the child was ages fifteen – seventeen (15-17), it is not sentenced pursuant to the DCAC statute. A first offense class two (2) felony, carries punishment of probation with zero (0) days in jail up to one (1) year in jail, or prison of three (3) years to twelve and one half (12.5) years of incarceration. If the person has one (1) allegeable historical prior conviction, then the “prison only” range is four and one half (4.5) years to twenty-three and one quarter (23.25) years in prison. If the person has two (2) allegeable historical prior convictions, then the “prison only” range is ten and one half (10.5) to thirty-five (35) years of incarceration.
Possible Defenses for Sexual Exploitation of a Minor/Child Pornography
The critical defenses to Child Porn charges involve showing that the person did not “knowingly” possess, receive, or do any of the listed actions with the images. One way of asserting this defense is by presenting evidence that the defendant was not the person who accessed the images. If it can be shown that there were multiple users who had access to the computer, and who did in fact use the computer often, then it is much more difficult for the State to prove the defendant actually accessed the images, rather than some other person. This defense is especially appropriate when the defendant lacks any other sexual crime convictions. In order to assert this defense, we need to present a variety of our own evidence to contradict whatever has been presented by the prosecution. Typically, the State would normally have executed a search warrant and confiscated the computer involved, then searched for the “IP address” and passwords that were used to trace the activates to a particular time, date, and user. Before they do any of this they will have “cloned” the hard drive in order to avoid any accusations that they have somehow tampered with the computer by adding images.
Another typical defense is that the defendant inadvertently came across the images on his computer, and thus it was not a “knowing” exchange. It is an affirmative defense to Child Pornography charges if a person timely reports that they have received unsolicited images on their computer. Usually, reporting within three (3) days of discovering the child pornography is considered to be “timely reporting.”
At the Charles Johnson Law Firm, we handle a very high percentage of “Sex Crimes” cases. We have one of the largest libraries with research materials devoted to challenging accusations involving sex crimes. Registering as Sex Offender has drastic consequences and leaves a black mark on your record; do not underestimate the potential severity of this charge.
Additionally, because our law firm fights conviction from all angles, we would assert a wide range of defenses and challenges to constitutional violations that apply in all criminal cases. The possibilities are numerous and diverse. One of those we frequently assert is a “Miranda rights violation.” In Texas, the standard of whether any incriminating statement (i.e., a statement which tends to admit guilt) is admissible into evidence is based upon a “voluntariness” standard. If we can demonstrate that the police coerced you (i.e., intimidated or tricked you) into making a confession or inculpatory statement, or that they did not properly read you your Miranda Rights, then we can suppress those statements and any evidence gathered as a direct result of those statements.
In addition, the “denial of right to Counsel” is another common defense which is often raised. This occurs when a suspect is in custody and requests to speak to their attorney, but is denied and questioning continues. Other defenses may include challenging the validity of any search warrant, or whether there were any “forensic flaws” during the investigation of your case. Depending on what else you have been charged with, this could include exposing flawed procedures regarding blood, breath, and urine testing; fingerprints analysis; DNA testing; computer analysis/cloning hard drive procedures; forensic financial accounting reviews; etc. Lastly, one of the most common defense tactics is exposing sloppy or misleading police reports which include everything from misstatements, false statements, flawed photo line-ups and inaccurate crime scene reconstruction. It is important to hire a skilled lawyer to defend you who has knowledge of all the possible defenses to assert in your case.
Do Not Make Statements. Obviously, the best defense begins before a defendant is ever charged. Often, in a misguided attempt to help law enforcement, defendants make statements that are twisted and turned into prosecutorial evidence. It is important to remember not to allow yourself be interviewed government agencies without an attorney present.
Any interview will be sent to the police and the county attorney’s office and can be used against you. An obvious corollary is do not let yourself be interviewed again by the police without your attorney present.
Computerized Evidence. Internet child pornography is a growing offense across the nation. Often files can be downloaded to a computer without the user knowing the content of the download. In such cases the electronic file will often include tell tale electronic evidence about the file, where it came from and its date of download. Using this evidence or challenging law enforcement’s sloppy investigation and acquisition of potentially exculpatory information is the best way for a defense lawyer to prove actual innocence.
Examine Prosecution Expert’s Background. An important part of every case is the ability to counter the reports and testimony of computer professionals, caseworkers and “experts” who examine pornographic evidence. To effectively counter a prosecution expert, the defense attorney must be well educated on the expert’s education, work history, published works and testimony in prior cases.
Use a Polygraph. When it is advantageous to the defense against a sexual assault, defense attorneys should obtain a credible polygraph examination from a respected professionals.
Texas Sex Offender Registration
In addition to the prison terms and fines one can face when convicted of any of these offenses, you may be required to register as a sex offender. This means you will be tracked for the rest of your life.
Knowing where to turn when facing charges as dark as these can be difficult. You have likely already seen people turn their backs on you because of the charges and you haven’t even gone to trial. You need someone in your corner fighting for your good name.
You are innocent until proven guilty. With my help we will see to it that you get the best possible results on your day in court.
Houston Child Pornography Defense Lawyer: The Charles Johnson Law Firm
Attorney Charles Johnson defends against sexual assault allegations throughout Texas, no matter how small or large the city. He has developed a unique understanding of the dynamics of these very serious cases. His competent, aggressive and thorough representation has made him a leading criminal defense attorney in dealing with sex and pornography related criminal charges.
Defending in these areas is a very specialized area of criminal defense. Unfortunately, the very accusations themselves are often treated as conclusive proof of criminal activity. If Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson is retained at an early stage in the investigation, he is sometimes able to avoid charges altogether. At a minimum he is often able to avoid the trauma and embarrassment of his client being arrested at home or at the workplace by contacting law enforcement and the court in order to make the necessary arrangements.
Depending on the facts of your case and the evidence against you, Houston Child Pornography Lawyer Charles Johnson will work to help you beat a false accusation or try to lessen the punishment. We understand your freedom is at stake and that a conviction of possession of child pornography may result in lifetime registration as a sex offender. To protect your rights and liberty, we conduct thorough investigations to prepare for trial or to minimize the consequences or sentence.
Houston Criminal Lawyer Charles Johnson can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Call us at 713-222-7577 or toll free at 877-308-0100.
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News Stories Related to Child Pornography Arrests in Houston
Houston man charged with child porn possession after Google cyber-tip
... and sent to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children led to the arrest of a 41-year-old Houston man who is charged with possessing child pornography. Police say Google detected explicit images of a young girl in an email that John Henry ...
KHOU - Jul 29 2014
Hundreds arrested in global child porn investigation
WASHINGTON — More than 200 adults have been arrested in an international investigation of child pornography, Immigration and Customs Enforcement said Thursday. According to KDFW, a Fox station in Dallas, a 38-year-old Houston man was among those arrested.
Chron - Jan 04 2013
Editorial Roundup: Google's careful watch
In the tally of privacy grievances, Google's scanning of emails for child pornography should rank very low, if it appears at all. The controversy bubbled up after law enforcement last month arrested a Houston man for sending images of child pornography ...
South Coast Today - Aug 18 2014
Google Gmail scanning leads to arrest of man in child pornography
Google's controversial practice of scanning emails and analyzing users' emails for targeted ads reportedly led to the arrest of a 41-year-old Houston man who has been charged with possessing and promoting child pornography. According to a local TV station ...
Los Angeles Times - Aug 04 2014
Google Helps Make Houston Child Porn Arrest
(KHOU) Detectives say he worked at a Denny's in Pasadena and took videos of children dining at the restaurant. He was only caught after Google tipped off police that he was sending pictures online. John Skillern was convicted of sexually assaulting a child ...
KEYE TV - Aug 04 2014
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Numerous states have undertaken a revision of their rape and sexual assault laws, creating a broad set of sexually related crimes. These crimes are frequently referred to collectively as sexual assault, criminal sexual conduct or sexual abuse. The chief characteristic of these laws is that they prohibit doing any kind of sexual act with an additional person against that person’s will. Usually, it isn’t necessary to show physical resistance on the part of the victim, only that the victim did not consent to the act. When you have been accused of sexual assault, seek the guidance of the Recommended Best Houston Sexual Assault Lawyer at the Charles Johnson Law Firm in Houston, TX.
The contemporary trend is to make the laws against sexual assault gender neutral so that they apply to acts by and against both men and women. Probably the most severe types of sexual assault are those committed against kids or those that involve the use of violence.
Is Sexual Assault exactly the same as Rape?
The traditional definition of rape demands an act of sexual intercourse or sexual penetration by force or against the victim’s will. Sexual assault includes contact like sexual touching. These definitions, however, vary by jurisdiction.
The majority of sexual assault allegations are made by someone who knows the accused. When a sexual act is done with a minor who seemingly consented, criminal charges might arise because minors are not regarded as capable of giving consent.
The seriousness of a sexual assault charge, as well as the penalty that is imposed, may depend upon the amount and kind of force used by the defendant and also the injuries suffered by the victim. The victim’s physical resistance isn’t a main factor in deciding the severity of the charge. Sexual assault charges are frequently felony charges, even though some types of sexual assaults might be misdemeanors.
The penalties for sexual assault are severe and consist of prison or jail, monetary fines, psychiatric evaluation and treatment, and restitution payments to the victim. A person convicted of sexual assault may be forced to register as a sex offender for the rest of his or her life and have his or her name appear on the public registry of sex offenders.
Prosecution and Defense of Sexual Assault Cases
Generally, the only witnesses to an alleged sexual assault are the victim and also the individual accused. Many cases thus turn out to be “he said/she said” kinds of cases, in which one particular person’s word is pitted against another’s. False allegations have been made by each adults and kids. An adequate defense against a sexual assault charge demands sufficient info and rigorous advocacy. Houston Sexual Assault Lawyer Charles Johnson will go to war to defend your rights.
Hire the Recommended Houston Sexual Assault Attorney!
Sexual assault includes numerous types of sexual acts carried out with out the consent of the victim. These cases often don’t involve eyewitnesses and, as a result, are complex. Being convicted of sexual assault can result in lengthy prison time and social isolation once you are released. If you’re facing sexual assault charges, speak with the skilled and aggressive Houston Criminal Defense Attorney Charles Johnson. He is available around the clock to answer any questions you may have regarding your case.
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Hire the Most Effective Houston Criminal Attorney!
Generally, prostitution is the act of participating in sexual activity by an individual for a fee or a thing of economic value. However the scope of the crime of prostitution has been widened to include virtually all prostitution related offenses. As a result a person is considered to commit a criminal offense of prostitution if he or she engages in an act of prostitution willfully, solicits prostitution, or agrees to engage in an act of prostitution.
An individual could possibly end up being guilty of an attempt to commit prostitution when he or she engages in conduct that tends to effect the commission of such crime.The parties to the crime often include: a prostitute in addition to a customer or a third person/pimp. In addition to engaging in prostitution, soliciting prostitution, agreeing to engage in an act of prostitution, child prostitution, attempted prostitution are some other prostitution related offenses. In order to establish attempt, it is necessary to determine that a defendant had the intent to commit a specific offense and that a defendant engaged in some affirmative act to carry out that criminal offense.
The Most Effective Houston Criminal Attorney Can Help
The elements constituting a criminal offense of prostitution are that an individual has engaged in a sexual activity and has done it willfully. Sexual activity might be sexual intercourse or any type of lewd acts that can arouse sexual feelings. Most jurisdictions make monetary consideration a requisite to constitute prostitution but a few jurisdictions do not require it to be a component of the offense. Consideration need not be in the form of cash.
In order to constitute an offense of soliciting prostitution, an individual has to solicit another individual to engage in an act of prostitution and the act must have been done with specific intent to engage in an act of prostitution. A prostitute or a customer may be charged for the criminal offense of solicitation of prostitution depending on the circumstances or who began the interaction. Specific intent of engaging in an act of prostitution is an essential element to constitute a criminal offense. An offer to pay cash or some other compensation like drugs in return for sexual acts may very well be regarded as evidence as to the intent of the parties. Several courts have held that the individual being solicited must actually receive the solicitation in order to convict an accused for soliciting prostitution.
Agreeing to engage in an act of prostitution is another prostitution offense. The elements of the criminal offense are that, an individual has to have agreed to engage in an act of prostitution with another person. It should have been with a specific intent to engage in an act of prostitution and any sort of act in furtherance of prostitution must have had to be performed. This offense is a continuation of solicitation of prostitution because the person who accepts solicitation will undoubtedly be agreeing to engage in prostitution.
An arrest under the offense of agreeing to engage in an act of prostitution may possibly be made even if the person who solicited did not have the same intent. This situation may arise when a person who pretended to be a prostitute was an under cover agent. In addition to the intent, an act in furtherance of prostitution must have been performed to constitute the offense of agreeing to engage in prostitution.
An act in furtherance of prostitution might be, driving to an agreed upon location where the sexual activity will take place, simple verbal command to undress, giving the payment agreed upon and the like. The nature of the act isn’t important as long as it indicates existence of an agreement to engage in prostitution.
Hire the Most Effective Houston Lawyer
Houston Lawyer Charles Johnson will treat you and your legal situation with dignity and go to war for you to safeguard your life, loved ones and future. When you or a family or friend are dealing with legal issues or a criminal defense inquiry, you need someone you can depend on to help you.
Even though prostitution is (initially) a misdemeanor, a conviction can be devastating. A sex related criminal record can damage an individual’s career and family life. In the event you are contending with prostitution or solicitation of prostitution in Houston, Texas, you will find an aggressive, skilled, and knowledgeable attorney in the Best Houston Criminal Defense Attorney at the Charles Johnson Law Firm.
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